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KCI등재 학술저널

청일전쟁의 의미

조·청 ‘속방’ 관계를 중심으로

  • 44

About the influence which Sino-Japanese war attains to Korea, it is being estimated for many researches that the relation of traditional tributary between Chosun and Qing was able to be smashed as a result of Sino-Japanese war. Such evaluation originates in the first article of the Treaty of Peace concluded at Shimonoseki in 1895 after Sino-Japanese war. The first article is “China recognizes definitively the full and complete independence and autonomy of Corea, and in consequence, the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies and formalities by China in derogation of such independence and autonomy, shall wholly cease for the future.” However, I think that the relation of traditional tributary between Chosun and Qing was not abolished by the first article of the Treaty of Peace at Shimonoseki. Generally, after warring, a treaty of peace is concluded between a victorious nation and a defeated nationૡSince division of the profits by the result of war is priority in this process, the profits of other small and weak states are not reflected. Therefore, we have to consider concretely how the first article was functioning on the Chosun in an inner and external situation. Furthermore, the relation of traditional tributary between Chosun and Qing had collapsed like the Chapter of Trade of the Land and Water of Tradespeople between Chosun and Qing in 1882. And after that, the pressure to Chosun of Qing had the character of modern colony-rule. Then, many reports which say that the first article of Treaty of Peace between Qing and Japan was “denying the traditional suzerain power to Chosun of Qing in a stereotyped way” is different with the historical fact those days. Actually, if it considers how the first article was making it manage until the Treaty of Commerce between Great Han Empire and Qing in 1899 was concluded, it was insufficient for practice power that period. There is a term called ‘free independence’ of Korea in the first article of the Treaty of Peace between Qing and Japan. To the Qing, the meaning of this term was that the treaties with Chosun concluded in the past in like including the Chapter in 1882 abolished, and then it did not mean the equal relation between Chosun and Qing after Sino-Japanese war. After all, I think that the first article of the Treaty of Peace between Qing and Japan was not being applied to Chosun and having made it manage according to the necessity for Qing and Japan. Therefore, Chosun required conclusion of an equal treaty, without ceasing. This was tying with the policy which was opposed to Qing developed before Sino-Japanese war. Consequently, Great Han Empire concluded the Treaty of Commerce as qualification on a level with Qing in 1899 using the international relations involving Great Han Empire. Even if the Treaty of Commerce between Great Han Empire and Qing had some problems to some extent, to the Great Han Empire, that treaty had large meanings in the viewpoint called policy which was opposed to Qing through the 1880s. First, conclusion of the Treaty of Commerce between Great Han Empire and Qing brought about the public law-basis which can perform rights with equal and independent authorities in all negotiations both countries. Second, that treaty became the concluding point of policy of anti-Qing developed so that it might escape from an unequal relation with Qing. Third, the bilateral equal relation was materialized through this treaty. It was also having the meaning of treaty amendment to the Chapter in 1882.

1. 머리말

2. 청일전쟁 직전 조선 ‘속방’ 논란

3. 청일전쟁 이전 조·청관계

4. 청일강화조약 제1조의 실제적 운용과 1899년 한청통상조약체결

5. 맺음말

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