Korean Residents in Japan established institution called Hanguel training school, teaching Korean, which was prohibited under Japanese occupation, as soon as Korea was freed from Japan. The number of institution established all over Japan was over 200 by the end of 1945. The sudden growth of the institution after the lapse of three months after liberation proves how non-sensical it was for Japanese colonial policy to force the idea of Japan and Korea sharing the same ancestors incompetently and coercively. Establishing such institution was a beginning of the ethnic movement in Japan. Koreans who persisted to stay in Japan after the liberation formed the Confederation of Koreans in Japan; continuing on such movement as they developed systematically with enthusiasm. The confederation was supported to publish textbooks, build school buildings and to cultivate teachers. With much effort, the institute developed, and by October 1947, there were about 600 elementary schools and 9 middle schools established. However, Japanese government oppressed the Confederation of Koreans in Japan to follow their rule. In October 1947, the General Headquarters of the Allied Powers (GHQ) ordered that the second generation of Koreans should be schooled under Japanese education. Soon after, Japanese government commanded the children of Korean residents should be educated like Japanese. Such actions by both the Japanese government and the GHQ meant they did not recognize Korean residents as emancipators. Korean residents flatly refused to follow such Japanese policy. They started a full-scale campaign against their demand in April, 1948. They insisted on their right to be taught by Koreans. The GHQ declared the first state of emergency after the WWII, and to crush their strong will, the Japanese police reacted violently as they did when they occupied Korea. At that time, a 16-year old boy named Kim Tae Il was shot to death in Osaka and about 180 people were arrested and received heavy punishments in Gobe and Osaka. After the campaign against the Japanese government, the government ordered the Confederation of Koreans in Japan and other such organizations to be disbanded and the schools established by them to be abolished on October 9th, 1949. The Japanese took strong actions against Korean residents to educate the second generation under Japan as they did during the their occupation in Korea. Nevertheless, the leaders of Korean residents continued to promote educating the second generations ethnically privately.
2. 국어강습소와 재일본조선인연맹의 민족교육
3. GHQ(연합국총사령부)와 일본정부의 對한인 교육정책
4. 재일한인의 민족교육투쟁