For the comparison of the urushiol composition and biological acitivity between the fresh sap and fire distilled sap of lacquer tree(Rhus vernicifera), we analysed the urushiol composition by HPLC and EI-MS, and investigated the antioxidative , antimicrobial and anticancer acitivities according to solvent fractionations. There was no difference in the urushiol composition between fresh and fire distilled saps of lacquer tree. The hexane frqctionsof two saps showed a strong DPPH radical scaverging activity (RC50 : 7.0-7.5μg). They also showed a strong antifungal activity onthe spore germination of Cladosporium herbarum(MIC : 8μg/ml), whereas they have no or low activity against the bacteria(BAcillus subtilis , Escherichia coli). In addition , hexane and butanol fractions of two saps showed a strong inhibitory activity against cultured tumour cell lines (GI50 : 0.35, 12.29μg/ml) in vitro. These results confirm that the fresh sap and fire distilled sap might have the similar urushiol compositions and biological activities.