Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (family Nymphaeaceae) has been used for summer heat syndrome ashome remedy in Japan, China and Korea. Although whole plant parts are edible, root is commonly consumed. It has been reported that rhizome extract showed anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, in spite of usefulness for treatment of various diseases, the effect of Nelumbo nucifera rhizome (NNR) on proliferation, migration and matrix degrading enzymes-matrix metalloproteinsases (MMPs), the expression of which degrades extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to metastasis, has not been fully elucidated. We examined the effect of hot water extract of NNR on the proliferation, migration and secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rat smooth muscle cells (rSMC), epidermoid cancer cells (A431) and breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). The proliferation assay was carried out using MTT assay, the principle of which depends upon the conversion of MTT by mitochondrial dehydrogensases of viable cells to formazan crystals. The effect of NNR on migration of cells was examined using wound healing assay. Our results showed that there was inhibition in the proliferation, migration and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in dose dependent fashion in all the cells used. Thus, we concluded that NNR could be used as traditional medicine in the treatment of various diseases where proliferation, migration and MMPs’expression plays a pathological role like in restenosis and metastasis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS