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KCI등재 학술저널

제주도 구비문학의 전승 변이적 특성

Special Characteristic Changes in the Oral Transmission of Jeju Culture

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기존에 수집된 구비문학 자료에는 제주사람들의 언어로 표현된 세계관과 인식이 잘 반영되고 있는데, 특히 구비문학의 전승변이를 살펴보면 그 특성이 두드러지게 나타난다. 지역의 특성을 반영하는 공시적 변이와 함께 역사를 반영하며 공시성에 따른 장르의 내부적 변이, 개별 화자에 의한 변이, 목적성을 띤 의도적인 변이도 나타난다. 우선 지역적 공통적으로 나타나는 점은 동 유형 전설의 전도적인 분포와 함께 동 유형의 풍수 전설 등이 구전되고 있다는 점이다. 또한 인근 지역의 소재를 차용하기도 하며, 삼별초 전설이나 해녀항일에 대한 사실담도 구전되고 있다. 설문대 이야기가 신화·전설·민담 형식으로 구전되었다는 것은 민중들에게 선호도가 높고 향유층의 광포성을 뜻하기도 한다. 이외에도 장르 내부에서 일어난 변이 현상 추정이 가능하고 또한 지역에 분포되어 있는 당신화간에서는 지역적인 연계가 뚜렷이 나타난다. 또한 구연능력이 뛰어난 화자에 의한 변이는 언어와 문학성을 풍부케 하며 그 흥미를 더하는 편인데 목적성을 띤 의도적인 개작은 현장감과 언어에 내포된 연상력을 약화시킬 우려도 있다.

The importance of language which is the first element in the oral transmission culture cannot be emphasized enough. The oral culture that is being transmitted by the Jeju people literally means the correct delivery and preservation of the original Jeju language. However, the authentic oral transmission is almost always not being carried out on site and is being carried out only in reenactments of an artificially made environment. Facing such challenges, lively discussions are being construed on the scale of preservation in terms of gradual limitation in people who can actually carry out the transmission. A thorough investigation of able people and stories that remain need to be executed and an establishment of an archive for arranging and preserving the already existing orally transmitted culture that have been found also needs to be built. Amongst the already collected data regarding the orally transmitted literature, we can have a glimpse into the world view and awareness expressed through the Jeju people s language. If we were to take a closer look especially into the changes in the methods of transmission, the special characteristics of these methods are salient. These changes include synchronic changes that reflect locality, internal changes in genre as well as intentional change with certain purposes or according to the narrator. The commonality in the transmission process by region that appears foremost amongst these literature are an island wide distribution of similar type legends along with legends that clash against perspectives about the Confucius ideology and feng shui legends that deal with limitations of the Jeju people which have been orally passed down all over Jeju. In addition, according to regions, the stories may become a legend to be passed down reflecting a historical incident, borrowing topics from a nearby village, or specific people such as Kim Tongiung or the anti Japanese movement by the women sea divers. The fact that the stories such as that of Seolmundae Halmang being transmitted as myths, legends and folktales means that this kind of stories are highly preferred by the general public and also signifies ubiquity of location shared by the people who enjoy these stories. Other than this, there are cases where there is a clear delineation of regional connection and possibility of picking out the changes that occurred within the genre. The changes that have occurred due to a talented narrator adds on to the language, enrichment of the literature and interest level. However, concern has also been expressed in that adaptation with a certain purpose may weaken the associative ability contained within the language and location.

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