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KCI등재 학술저널

원 간섭기 탐라인의 해상 활동과 이어도

Sea Activities of Tamra(耽羅) people during the Mongol Intervention Period and Eiodo(離汝島)

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이어도 전설은 대부분 그 시대적 배경이 원 간섭기이다. 그리고 전설에는 이어도의 위치도 나온다. 그 위치는 제주에서 風船을 타고 서남쪽으로 4,5일 정도 가면 닿을 수 있는 곳, 혹은 중국과 탐라 중간에 있는 곳이었다. 이 위치는 현재 이어도 해양과학기지가 위치한 수중 암초와 겹친다고 할 수 있다. 제주 사람들이 이 수중 암초의 존재를 일찍이 알고 있었을 가능성이 있는 것이다. 그 가능성을 확인하기 위해서 원 간섭기 탐라인의 해상 활동을 살펴보았다. 당시 탐라인은 큰 배를 만들 수 있는 능력이 있었다. 그리고 元은 탐라에 국립 목마장을 설치하였다. 이후 탐라인들은 주기적으로 말을 원에 바쳤다. 이때 말을 운송하는 항로 가운데 중국 강남으로 가는 직항로가 있었다. 이는 문헌 기록을 통해서 뒷받침할 수 있다. 이 직항로를 이용하여 탐라인은 중국 강남을 비번하게 오고갔다. 현재 이어도라 불리는 수중 암초는 그 직항로 선상에 위치하고 있다. 직항로를 이용하여 중국 강남을 오가던 탐라인들은 이 수중 암초가 있는 해역을 통과해야 했다. 이 암초는 해면 4.6m 아래에 있다. 평온한 기상 조건에서는 문제가 되지 않지만, 파도가 높게 치는 때이면 위험한 존재가 되어 배들을 난파시킬 수 있었다. 그래서 이 항로를 이용하는 이들은 항해의 안전을 위해서 이 위험한 수중 암초의 존재를 분명히 인지하고 있었다고 생각한다.

This paper aims to examine the sea activities during the Mongol intervention period, which is the background times of Eiodo(離汝島) legends passed down orally by the people of Jeju island. Through such process, the article tries to investigate whether the Tamra(Jeju) people actually were aware of Eiodo, which is an underwater rock. The legend of Eiodo mostly takes place during the Mongol intervention period of Koryo dynasty in Korean history, and it also tells the location of the island. It is said the island can be reached southwest bound from Jeju island by wind-powered vessels for about 4 to 5 days, or was located between China and Tamra. This spot currently is overlapped with the underwater rock where the Eiodo Ocean Research Station is situated above. Thus, there is a possibility that the past residents of Jeju knew about this underwater rock. In order to ascertain that possibility, I have looked into the maritime activities of Tamra people during the Mongol intervention period. The contemporary inhabitants of Tamra have had the abiltity to build big ships. The Mongol Yuan empire of China also paid attention to Tamra’s value from the 1260s, as it initially noticed the island’s military value as an advanced base to conquer south China and Japan. Soon the mongol empire established state horse farm to economically exploit Jeju, which led the locals to periodically present horses to the empire. Among these ‘horse transport routes’, there was a direct line leading to Mngzhou of Chinese Jiangnan, which can be supported by documents. Through this direct sea route, Tamra people made frequent voyages to Mingzhou of China. Then, what is the relationship between Tamra seafaring and Eiodo? It is noticeable that Eiodo exists on that direct route, so that Tamra sailors had to inevitably pass this underwater rock. This reef stays 4.6m under the sea. During the calm weather conditions, there were no accidents. But when meeting high waves, the rock obviously generated shipwrecks. Hence, those using the direct line must have had the information about such dangers for the sake of safe voyage, and this is the reason to believe that these aboriginals clearly knew about the reef during their sea travels. However, it also meant that when they saw this underwater rock, the waves were already very high and the sailors never returned home due to shipwrecks. Thus the legend was born telling that once seeing Eiodo, one cannot see their homeland ever again. In short, the people of Tamra made numerous journeys by sea to offer horses to the Mongol empire of China. During this path, there exists the Eiodo rock. It was crucial for those involved to be aware of the reef for safe voyages, so that majority of contemporary Tamra population clearly knew about the sunken rock. However, Jeju locals had no more business of voyaging far into the waters when entering Joseon era, so that naturally no need to travel across the sea area of Eiodo. Consequently, it is the conclusion of this study that through such procedures, the mentioned underwater rock became the legend itself.

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