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학술대회자료

탐라의 대외 교류와 이어도

Tamra’s Maritime Exchange and Ieodo

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The indigenous people of Jejudo Island find the term “Ieodo” very familiar. Ieodo is an imaginary island. However, an ocean research station named after the fictitious island was opened off the southwestern coast of Jeju in 2003, drawing keen attention to the submerged rock in the area ever since. Some argue that Ieodo refers to the very rock. However, it is still generally accepted that Ieodo and the rock are two separate sites and the former only exists in one’s imagination. This paper conducts a comprehensive examination into the orally-transmitted local legend of Ieodo and the foreign affairs of Tamna (the ancient name of Jeju) during the Mongolian intervention period in an attempt to identify if it was possible that the Tamna people had been aware of the existence of Ieodo. The legend of Ieodo takes place during the late Goryeo era while the ancient Korean kingdom underwent the Mongolian interference in its domestic affairs. An elucidatory note in a local folk song about Ieodo details the location of the place. The orally-transmitted tune sings that Ieodo can be reached in four to five days’ voyage to the southwest of Jeju by wind-powered boat (Pungseon). It can be interpreted that the location of the rock currently called Ieodo (and the Ieodo Oceanic Research Station over it) overlaps with that of Ieodo. A possibility does exist that the ancient people of Jeju knew about the existence of the underwater rock. To verify the possibility, this paper investigates the situations around Tamna while it was under the Mongolian influence as well as its interaction with the world overseas. By that period of time, Tamna’s inhabitants had already become capable of building a large vessel. Furthermore, a direct sea route already existed between Jianan (south of Chian’s Yangtze River) and Goryeo during the Southern Song China period, even before the Mongolian Yuan influenced Goryeo’s national affairs. The said seaway, when sailing to and from Gaegyeong (the capital of Goryeo), had a stopover at Heuksando Island off the southwestern tip of the Korean Peninsula. If stopping off in Tamna, the direct route between China’s Jianan and Tamna could easily be navigated. In fact, the leaders of the Yuan Dynasty had understood Tamna resident’s values. At the beginning of the intervention period, they paid attention to the military value of the island. To put it in other words, Tamna drew attention as a military outpost that could be used to subjugate Southern Song China and Japan. Even after the empire’s failed invasions of Japan in the 14th century, the Mongolian Kingdom established a state-run horse ranch, still recognizing the values of the Tamna people. Presumably, Tamna sent the horses from the ranch as a royal tribute to the Yuan Dynasty. The horses were transported to Jianan through a direct sea route. This can be proved easily because many documents still exist that are directly or indirectly related to this historical fact. In short, it can be inferred that Tamna was directly accessible from China in the Mongolian intervention period while the Tamna people used the route to travel to and from China’s Jianan. How would the foreign affairs of Tamna at the time relate to Ieodo? When examining the correlation between the use of the direct sea route and the issues regarding Ieodo, an importance should be placed on the fact that the submerged rock called “Ieodo” is located along that particular route. This paper deduces that some of those Tamna people who sailed to Jianan learned about the existence of the submerged rock when undergoing an accidental wreck caused by the very rock.

1. 머리말

2. 口傳 속 이어도의 위치

3. 원 간섭기 탐라의 對元 교류와 이어도

4. 맺음말

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