This study aims to clarify how culture films [munhwa yeonghwa], which had strong enlightenment elements in earlier times, became propaganda films during the 1960’s and to elucidate the propaganda strategy of these films. Recognizing the importance of film as an instrument of propaganda, the military junta enhanced the role and position of information activities in the government. The military government was attempting to make the most of direct mass media by using it as a tool of ‘psychological warfare’. The National Film Production Center combined the functions of planning and producing news films and culture films made by the film department and the Daehan film company. Consequently, the nation was treating the people as the main target of psychological warfare and systematized the production of culture films as propaganda films. There were also big changes in the method of screening films that were intended to promote the position of culture films. By law, culture films were required to be played before the screening of feature films. Moreover, culture films were presented with news films and feature films during provincial film screenings. All of the films were closely connected with one another to convey a message to the people. Culture films used particular presentational strategies to strengthen the propaganda effect. First, they conveyed heightened visual sensations through spectacular visuals. Second, they were designed to induce a sense of crisis and a fear through sensational pictures and words. Finally, they attempted to induce high emotions through visual contrasts and dramatic elements. Culture films sometimes offered themes of persuasion and conciliation, and sometimes compulsion and encouragement to the audience. Presenting ideal images of the people, culture films were increasingly alienated from the everyday life of real people during the late 1960’s.
2. 1960년대 문화영화의 위상 변화
3. 문화영화와 선전하는 국가