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KCI등재 학술저널

근세성곽의 근대적 변용과 성터 공원의 장소기억

일본 시코쿠(四国)의 사례를 중심으로

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Due to the spatial characteristic as a combat facility to get prepared for emergency, the modern castles of Japan were decided to be preserved and utilized in the close relation with the foundation process of Meiji army. The Meiji new government that paid attention to the value of castle ruins as a military post decided the utilization and disuse by researching the castles in the whole nation in the process of reorganizing the army military system. According to the ’Ordinance for Keeping and Disposal of Castles’ of 1873, the places that were decided as military post(Marugame, Tokushima, Uwajima, Takamatsu) of Garrison were under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Army while other castles were transferred to the Ministry of Treasury and then disposed(Matsuyama, Ozu) to the private sector. However, the Kochi Castle in old Tosa Han that was omitted from the ‘Ordinance for Keeping and Disposal of Castles’ was actually treated as an abolished castle, and then, it was successfully changed into a castle ruins park in April 1873 based on the ‘Proclamation of Park Establishment’ issued in the same period. This change of Kochi Castle into a castle ruins park had influences on its neighboring prefectures. Ehime Prefecture that was newly established by integrating old Matsuyama Prefecture and Uwajima Prefecture in February 1873 rediscovered the value of Matsuyama Castle that was originally decided to be abolished, and then designated it as a castle ruins park just like Kochi Castle in February of next year. Except for Marugame Castle that was continuously used as a military post, the rest three castles under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Army were sold to old lords through the castle disposal measures in 1890. Just as examined earlier, such old lord families played an important role in the process of changing modern castles to castle ruins parks in downtown through the transfer of castle ruins ownership and provision of donation. Those old lord families that lost the status of feudal lord after the Meiji Restoration, became newly-rising men of wealth by investing the government bond received through the suspension of payment into major state-run enterprises including the 15th National Bank. The Ministry of Army chose those old lords as preferential buyers of castles because of the assets they had. However, the proposal to buy a castle to the old lord family that moved to Tokyo after the abolition of the han system, must be recognized as an opportunity to recover ties between old domain and tenants. Under the interests of both parties, the ownership of modern castles was transferred to the Ministry of Army after the Ordinance for Keeping and Disposal of Castles, and then it was transferred again to old lord families. However, based on their special status such as economic men of wealth, representatives of Imperial Diet, and noblemen, it must be improper for them to sell or develop the castle ruins only for immediate gains. Even though there were differences according to conditions of individual city and ordinary citizens’ needs, eventually, the old castles purchased by old lords were all changed into castle ruins parks after being sold or transferred to the city government. By establishing a monument, statue, or shrine worshiping the progenitor or family of old lord who was the old owner of castle, they became a place of memories to recollect the past and history of old domain before the Meiji Restoration. As a result, the modern castles that were changed from a residential space for old lord to parks “enjoyed by everyone” after the Meiji Restoration, played important roles as a symbol that gave the (local) identity to the physical spatial unit of ‘prefecture’ newly established by abolition of the han system, and also formed a sense of belonging in residents.

Ⅰ. 들어가면서

Ⅱ. 시코쿠의 근세성곽과 메이지 초기의 성곽 파괴: 이마바리(今治)성

Ⅲ. 1873년 태정관 「제국존・폐성조서(諸國存・廢城調書)」와 성터 공원의 등장: 고치(高知)・마쓰야마(松山)・오즈(大洲)성

Ⅳ. 성터 공원으로의 변용과 구 번주 가의 현창

Ⅴ. 나가면서

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