Aging-induced Sarcopenia and Exercise. Kinesiology, 2017, 19(2): 43-59. [PURPOSE] Aging is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength as well as physical performance called sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is one of the leading causes of disability in the elderly. Despite the growing prevalence of sarcopenia, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the aging-related sarcopenia are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper was to review the potential mechanisms of aging-induced sarcopenia and the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on sarcopenia. [METHODS] A literature review was conducted via web based search engines such as the PUBMED and OVID to collect data and information. [RESULTS] Mitochondria in skeletal muscle may be consid-ered a major factor underlying aging-induced sarcopenia. Alterations in mitochondrial function increase oxidative stress (ROS), interfere with mitochondrial dynamics leading to the unbalance between fusion and fission, impair mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), and trigger mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in aging skeletal muscle. In addition, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and decreased sex hormones may be associated with aging-induced sarcopenia. [CONCLUSIONS] In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the potential mechanisms of the aging-related sarcopenia, and highlight the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise on sarcopenia in aging skeletal muscles, suggesting that combined exercise may be the most effective to protect against aging-induced sarcopenia.
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