Relationship between Serum Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Concentration and Physical Fitness after an Exercise Training in Postmenopausal Middle-aged Women. The Journal of Kinesiology, 2017, 19(4): 85-93. [PURPOSE] The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentration and physical fitness after exercise in middle-aged women. [METHODS] Subjects were randomly assigned to yoga and elastic band resistance exercise group (55.21±3.78 yrs, n=11) and non-exercise group (54.10±2.51 yrs, n=7). The exercise group participants performed upper and lower extremity exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, %fat, serum DHEA concentration, sit-up, grip strength, and one leg stand (with close eyes) were measured on subjects. [RESULTS] Serum DHEA concentration showed an increased trend after exercise training as compared to before exercise training, but no significant difference between before and after exercise training. Also, variables related to physical fitness as sit-up, grip strength, and one leg stand were significantly (p<.05) increased after exercise training as compared to before exercise training. However, serum DHEA concentration and variables related to physical fitness showed no significant relationship. [CONCLUSIONS] Yoga and elastic band resistance exercise training could improve muscular physical fitness, and could be a potential method increasing serum DHEA concentration in middle-aged women, but this possibility is an obscure. In future studies, the intensity of exercise for increasing physical fitness of middle-aged women and the exercise intensity for metabolic function enhancement due to elevated DHEA concentration in blood should be presented differently.