OBJECTIVES Overhead throwing athlete’s glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and posterior shoulder tightness (PST) could increase the risk of shoulder injuries. Sleeper stretching and cross-body stretching has shown the effect of improved PST and increased internal rotation in overhead throwing athletes. The purpose of this study is to provide how to apply those stretching techniques in evidence-based method to improve the effects of the stretching on throwing athletes. METHODS We searched total 1650 research with keywords related. Then we selected 60 research which applied randomized control trials (RCTs). We then reviewed and selected 9 research out of 18 research to review the stretching techniques RESULTS Sleeper stretching and cross-body stretching techniques were applied for 30 seconds with 3 to 5 repetitions showing positive results. Additionally, applying scapular stabilization and joint mobilization with those stretching techniques showed more improved effects. CONCLUSIONS To prevent and treat GIRD and PST, sleeper stretching and cross-body stretching are recommended on throwing athletes with scapular stabilization and joint mobilization.
Conflicts of Interest