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SCOPUS 학술저널

Economic and Social Upgrading of Firms in Football Global Value Chains

Purpose: Participation of firms in Global Value Chains (GVC) has contributed significantly to the improvement of economic outcomes for firms in developing countries. However, evidence suggests that these economic outcomes are gained at the cost of labourers’ poor working conditions. This research contributes to existing literature on GVCs by investigating the influence of different governance structures on economic and social upgrading of firms participating in GVCs. Furthermore, the research attempts to understand the relationship between economic and social upgrading in GVCs. Research design and methodology: Detailed qualitative primary research was carried out in the football industry of Sialkot, Pakistan. The case study approach was employed, and football firms were the unit of analysis. Semi-structured interviews with firms’ representatives were conducted. Results: Findings reveal that most firms were found in captive, relational and market governance structures. Furthermore, product and process upgrading were witnessed in all firms; however, social upgrading was observed mostly in captive and relational GVCs. Moreover, social upgrading was linked to economic upgrading in captive and relational networks. Conclusions: The findings from the Sialkot football industry reflect that buyers pay higher prices and margins to their suppliers once they upgrade their products and processes.

1. Introduction

2. Theoretical Background

3. Research Design

4. Findings and Discussion

5. Conclusions

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