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KCI등재 학술저널

『일본영이기日本霊異記』 편찬에 관한 일고찰

편자 교카이의 의도를 중심으로

本稿は『霊異記』の編者景戒が如何なる意図をもってこの書物の編纂に取 り組んだのかについて考察を試みたものである。『霊異記』の説話を詳細に調べていくと、果たしてこの書物が仏教教理に即して人々を教化するためだけに編纂されたものなのか、不審に思われるところが散見される。もちろん景戒が『霊異記』を編纂した意図は仏教を人々に広めるためであったことは間違いないが、筆者はその裏に次のような側面が秘められていると考えられる。 まず私度僧の保護の主張である。当時日本では僧侶になるためには国か ら許可を得なければならなかったが、私度僧は許可を得ずに自ら僧侶になったため迫害の対象となった。だから景戒は私度僧の保護のため、彼らが聖人の化身であり、危害を加えればかならず天罰が落ちると主張する。次は僧侶とお寺の財物の重要性と絶対性の主張である。俗世とすべての縁を絶ち、仏道に専念する仏者たちは、物欲を絶ちきらなければならないが、景戒は僧侶、特に私度僧への経済的支援やお寺を維持するための財物の必需不可欠性を理解していた。なぜなら景戒は薬師寺の僧侶になる前に、私度僧であったため、とても困窮な生活をしていたからである。すなわち景戒は財物が如何に大事かという問題を誰より切実に悟っていたので、『霊異記』のなかに多くの財物の説話を収録したと思われる。

This article is an attempt to consider what intention the editor Kyokai of “Nihon-Ryoiki” tried to compile this book. When we examine the narratives of “Ryoiki” in detail, we can find some suspicious points as to whether or not this book was compiled only to educate people in accordance with Buddhist doctrine. Of course, Kyokai s intention to compile “Ryoiki” was to spread Buddhism to people, but I think the following aspects are hidden behind it. First of all, it is the protection of the monks. In Japan at that time, in order to become a monk, I had to obtain permission from the government, but I myself became a monk without permission, and I was subject to persecution. Therefore, Kyokai argues that they are the incarnations of saints and protect their monks, and if they do any harm they will lose their punishment. Next is the assertion of the importance and absoluteness of the monks and temple property. Kyokai understood the necessity of financial support for monks, especially private monks, and the necessity of goods to maintain the temple. This is because Kyokai had a very hard life because he was a monk before becoming a monk at Yakushiji. In other words, Kyokai was more keenly aware of the issue of how important the property was, so it seems that he recorded many stories of the property in “Ryoiki”.

1. 들어가며

2. 당시의 시대상

3. 사도승 보호

4. 재물의 중요성과 절대성

5. 나오며 : 편자 교카이의 의도

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