Purpose: The reality is that ethnic conflicts exist in a multi-ethnic society. After the Cold War, the issue of ethnic identity and discrimination, which had been suppressed under the socialist system, was rapidly highlighted, and national division began. However, from the perspective of a dominant nation seeking international status as a powerful nation, the separation of ethnic minorities is considered a crisis of national dissolution, so it tries to thoroughly prevent the separation of minorities. In this process, terrorism occurs and government control and pressure become intense. This phenomenon is considered in this paper. Method: Under the socialist system, the Soviet Union and China have controlled multi-ethnic societies with ideology. However, after the Cold War, an independent state began to be established as a wave of separatist nationalism spread in Eastern Europe, including Russia. China has implemented a strengthened one China policy to nip this phenomenon in the bud at home. In particular, it sought to undermine separatist nationalism against the Uyghurs and Tibetans. We examine China s strategy for ethnic minorities and Uyghur s resistance from a historical perspective. Results: Xinjiang is a geopolitical important area. The Chinese government wants to defend against potential Western threats by controlling the region. Some extremist groups of ethnic minorities are also implementing multidimensional policies to fundamentally block armed struggles and attempts to carry out terrorism for secession. The politics of suppression of minorities will continue for the time being because it is not easy to dismantle the cultural and religious identity of minorities. Conclusion: It is a matter that cannot be coerced into assimilating minorities by a dominant ethnic group. If there is no prerequisite for recognizing ethnic differences and policies for national reconciliation, a coercive system will only produce conflict. To ensure that terrorism is not a means of expressing resistance to discrimination, imperial political behavior must be abandoned.
2. Theoretical Background
3. Uyghur s Anti-Chinese Sentiment and Terrorism
4. China s Anti-Terrorism Policy