The political and economic transition in Hungary has been accompanied by widespread corruption. Shortage or bad allocation of resources, an over-bureaucratised legal system and public administration and networks based on mutual favours have remained structural causes of corruption. Society has undergone significant changes that have undermined generally accepted norms of behaviour and strengthened tendencies towards corruption. In some sectors the change from planned economy to a liberal market system has altered the underlying structure of corrupt behaviour. In the shortage economy of socialism, the direction of corruption was from buyer to seller as buyers sought to obtain goods and services in short supply. After the change of regime, the direction of corruption in several sectors like business, public contracting etc. is from seller to buyer. A shortage or faulty allocation of resources and over-bureaucratisation of the legal and administrative system have remained structural causes of corruption, notably exacerbated by changes associated with economic, political and social transition. Hungarian anti-corruption programmes have increasingly been based on the recognition that a comprehensive arsenal of legislative and non-legislative measures needs to be developed including not only criminalisation of a broader range of behaviours, but also e.g. stricter regulation on conflicts of interest and the organisation of information campaigns. The successful implementation of these programmes however, requires a strong political will on the part of government, and a solid consensus among political parties accompanied by continuous support from civil society.
Ⅰ. 들어가는 말
Ⅱ. 부패 문제에 대한 정의와 유형
Ⅲ. 부패 범죄의 과거와 현재: 1972년부터 최근까지의 부패범죄의 현황
Ⅳ. 부패 혹은 공직자의 부정행위에 대한 인식