마(산약) 생산을 위한 시비법 개선연구
Effect of Fertilizer and Organic Matter Level on Marketable Tuber Production in Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita)
Yams (Dioscorea spp), which are edible or medicinal tuber crops, are a important crop in South Korea. Yams require a high level of soil fertility. The various cultural practices such as fertilizing and plowing were tested for marketable tuber production in Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita). Tuber yield was also affected by organic matters in soil. Application higher level of organic matters result in increased each tuber weight and tuber yield per unit area. The nutrient absorption quantity of the plant such as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, calcium and potassium was increased from 100~120 days after planting, which time to begin tuber enlargement. The tuber yield was increased when the fertilization increased in quantity. Total yield and marketable ratio were the highest in 31~32 kg/10a of nitrogen fertilizer. From above result, income become larger with increase of marketable yield and quality improvement at 63% (27 kg/10a) level of conventional N fertilization (43 kg/10a). The tuber yield was not significantly different between with in various application level of potash fertilizer. Tuber size and weight decreased accordingly to decreased fertilizing level, so the rates of small tubers increased greatly at cultivation without chemical fertilizer. In considering the accumulation rates of allantoin in Chinese yam tubers, the apt harvest season was after October. The allantoin quantity of it was not influenced with nitrogen fertilizing. Moreover it was advantageous with decrease of chemical fertilizer and appropriate fertilizing in soil environment protection. Commercial tuber’s number and yield were increased in trenching before planting with trencher compared with rotavating with tractor.
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