Environment-friendly growth enhancers for rice are being promoted to reverse the negative impact of intensive chemical-based and conventional rice farming on yield sustainability and environmental problems. Several rhizosphere microorganisms and pyroligneous acids (PA) had demonstrated beneficial influence on growth, yield and grain quality of rice. Since most of the previous study had evaluated the effect of PGPR and PA on paddy rice singly, the effect of combined application of these on the growth and yield of paddy rice and on some soil chemical properties were determined. A four factorial pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of PGPR, PA in combination with fertilizers and on different soil types. There were 54 treatment combinations including the control with three replications under complete randomized design. Plant growth parameters were evaluated using standard procedures during tillering and heading stages. Rice yield and some soil chemical properties were determined at harvest. Results showed that inoculation of Bacillus licheniformis and Fusarium fujikuroi enhanced plant growth by increasing the plant height which could be ascribe to its ability to promote IAA and GA production in plants. Inoculation of Rhizobium phaseoli enhanced chlorophyll content indicative to its ability to improve the N nutrition. However, these plant growth benefits during the vegetative stage were override by the fertilizer application effect especially during the maturity stage and grain yield. High fertilization rates on coarse-textured soil without nutrient loss resulted to high available nutrients and consequently high yield. Wood vinegar application however improved nutrient availability in soil which could be beneficial for improving soil quality. Further evaluation is necessary to fully assess the potential benefits that could be derived from inoculation of these organisms and wood vinegar application in different soil environment especially under different field conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS