Drought stress has detrimental effects on the seedling development, vegetative/ reproductive growth, photosynthesis, root proliferation, anthesis, anthesis-silking interval (ASI), pollination and grain yield in maize. Typically, two weeks before silking through pollination are an important time in maize life. Here we reviewed the effects of drought stress on growth, physiological/ molecular researches for drought tolerance, and breeding to genomics in maize. Drought stress during kernel development increases leaf dying and lodging, decreases grain filling period and grain yield. Physiological factors of drought stress/ effects are water content, water deficits, and water potential. Nowdays molecular marker assisted breeding method is becoming increasingly useful in the improvement of new germplasm with drought stress tolerance.