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KCI등재 학술저널

「行為要求+ヨ」構文の意味機能

話し言葉コーパスの用例分析を中心に

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本稿は、「命令」「依頼」「勧め」など、いわゆる行為要求表現に終助詞ヨが付く「行為要求+ヨ」構文に注目し、2種類の話し言葉コーパスCEJCとNUCCを使って、用例分析と意味機能を考察したものである。行為要求の形式を、検索条件を「命令形」にして出現した「動詞の名詞形」「ナサイ」「テクレ·テクダサイ」に限定し、ヨで文が終わる場合とヨの後に「とか」「みたい」「なんて」「って(と)」といった「引用·例示類」が続く場合に分けて意味機能を考察した。その結果、ⅰ)発話状況上、話し手の強制権(強)と聞き手の決定権(弱)が明確な場合、「命令」から「依頼」「勧め」のように強制性の調整が現れた。ⅱ)発話状況上、どちらが一方的に強いと言えない状況では「不満」「非難」「催促」のような否定的な感情要素とともに話し手の強制権を強くみせかける態度が発現された。ⅲ)引用·例示類の「って話しだ/思う」が続く場合は「強い願望」として発現された。ⅳ)以上の内容をまとめると、終助詞ヨの定義において命令の意を「強める」というのは、ⅱ)の結果によって行為要求のモダリティとして意味機能の調整が行われたことが言えるし、「薄れる」というのは、ⅰ)の強制権を強くみせかけるという伝達態度のモダリティとして調整が行われたものと考えられる。

In this article, I focus on the construction “action-requiring expression +thd final particle yo,” where the “action-requiring expression,” concerns speech acts such as “order,”“request,” and “suggestion,” and present a semantic -functional analysis based on two spoken corpora, CEJC and NUCC. The forms of action-requiring expression are restricted to “the nominalised form of a verb”. “nasai”, and “tekure, tekudasai”, which were collected through the corpora under the search condition “imperative form”. I divided the data into the sentences that end with the final particle yo and those end with a “quotational or presentational” expressions(that follows yo) such as toka, mitai, nante and tte(to). The results of the analysis are summarised as follows: (i)in cases where a contrast is clear between the speaker’s right of having a compulsory effect on the addressee (strong) and the addressee’s right of accepting it(weak), the semantic functions observed are “order”, “request”, and “suggestion”. In the order of the hierarchy of compulsoriness; (ii)in cases where such a contrast is not clear, the speaker’s strong attitude is observed that reveals his/her right of having an effect on the addressee, together with negative emotive factors such as “dissatisfaction”, “criticism” and “urging”; (iii)the “strong desire” is observed when the sentence ends with the quotational/presentational expression tte hanashi-da or omou; (ⅳ)the definition of the final particle yo includes the “strengthening” or “weakening” of an order, and what is meant by “strengthening” is that as a result of the aforementioned cases (ii), the construction takes on a modality (especially, action-requiring) meaning, and what is meant by “weakening” is that the construction takes on a modality(especially, attitudinal) meaning that emphasises the speaker’s right of having a compulsory effect on the addressee.

1. はじめに

2. 선행연구

3. 話し言葉コーパスの用例調査

4. 「行爲要求+ヨ」構文の意味機能

5. まとめ

참고문헌

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