흑미 품종의 이앙기와 등숙기 온도 변화에 따른 품질 및 수량 변화 특성 구명
Variation in Grain Quality and Yield of Black-colored Rice Affected by the Transplanting Time and Temperature during Ripening Stage
Black-colored rice contains anthocyanin, which has an antioxidant function on the seed coat. Anthocyanin content is greatly affected by the cultivation environment, especially the average temperature during the ripening stage. Generally, low temperatures during the ripening stage increase anthocyanin content. To control the average temperature during ripening stage in the field, transplanting time has to be regulated. In this study, anthocyanin content variation was examined in relation to the transplanting time and the average temperature during the ripening stage. For the study, fourteen black-colored rice cultivars with different maturity types (four of early-maturing, five of medium-maturing, and five of medium-late maturing) were selected. The transplanting times used were May 20, June 5, June 20, and June 30. The field experiment was conducted in the Miryang, Kyoungsangnamdo province, Korea from 2014 to 2017. The anthocyanin content in all cultivars was higher when the transplanting time was delayed, and the highest anthocyanin content was observed in the transplanting on June 30. Variation in anthocyanin content according to the change in transplanting time is the greatest in the early maturing cultivars. The least change was observed in medium maturing cultivars. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between temperature and anthocyanin content, but the degree of correlation was very low in the medium maturing cultivar. As a result, the optimal average temperature during the grain filling stage for increasing the anthocyanin content of black colored rice was 22~23°C. The rice yield increased in plants transplanted until June 20 and decreased thereafter owing to low temperature during the grain filling stage. The anthocyanin content increased with delaying the transplanting time up to June 30 but the rice yield decreased after June 20. Nevertheless, the rate of increase in anthocyanin content was higher than the rate of decrease in rice yield. As a result, the optimum transplanting time and an average temperature of grain filling stage for black-colored rice variety were June 30 and 23~24°C considering both anthocyanin content and rice yield.
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