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Review on Adaptability of Rice Varieties and Cultivation Technology According to Climate Change in Korea
In recent years, the temperature of Korea has been rapidly increasing due to global warming. Over the past 40 years, the temperature of Korea has risen by about 1.26°C compared to that in the early 1980s. By region, the west region of the Gangwon Province was the highest at 1.76°C and the Jeonnam Province was the lowest at 0.96°C. As the temperature continues to rise, it is expected that the rice yield will decrease in the future using the current standard cultivation method. As a result of global warming, the periods in which rice cultivation could be possible in regions each year has increased compared those to the past, showing a wide variety from 110 days in Taebaek to 180 days in Busan and Gwangyang. In addition, the transplanting time was delayed by 3-5 days in all regions. The average annual yield of rice showed an increasing trend when we analyzed the average productivities of developed varieties for cooked rice since the 1980s, especially in the early 1990s, which showed a rapid increase in productivity. The relationship between the average temperature at the time of development and the rice yield was divided into the periods before and after 1996. The higher the average temperature, the lower the yield of the developed varieties until 1996. However, since 1996, the increase in the average temperature did not show a trend in the productivity of the developed varieties. The climate change adaptability of developed rice varieties was investigated by analyzing the results of growing crops nationwide from 1999 to 2016 and the change in the annual yields of developed varieties and recently developed varieties as basic data to investigate the growth status of the crops in the country. As a result of annual comparisons of the yields of Taebongbyeo (2000) and Ungwangbyeo (2004) developed in the early 2000s for Odaebyeo, which was developed in the 1980s, the annual yields were relatively higher in varieties in the 2000s despite the increase in temperature. The annual yields of Samgwangbyeo (2003) and Saenuribyeo (2007), which were recently developed as mid-late-type varieties, were higher than those of an earlier developed variety called Chucheongbyeo, which was developed in the 1970s. Despite the rapid increase in temperature, rice cultivation technology and variety development are well adapted to climate change. However, since the biological potential of rice could reach its limit, it is necessary to develop continuous response technology.
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