상세검색
최근 검색어 전체 삭제
다국어입력
즐겨찾기0
160518.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

증명삼화상(證明三和尙)의 형성 배경과 불교적 위상

The Origin of the Three Verification Masters and Their Status in the Buddhist Tradition

  • 41

지공, 나옹, 무학은 조선 초부터 삼화상(三和尙)이라 불리었으며, 삼성(三聖)으로 인식된 채 삼성각(三聖閣)에 봉안되어 예배 대상으로 존중되기도 하였다. 또한 18세기 이래 증명삼화상(證明三和尙)의 개념이 성립되었으며, 근세 성립된 󰡔석문의범󰡕에서는 ‘위작증명 법사’로 칭송되기도 하였다. 위작증명(爲作證明) 내지 증명법사란 ‘부처님의 현신’과 동일한 개념으로 받아들여지는 표현으로, 최고의 신앙 대상에 붙여지는 칭호이다. 그럼에도 증명삼화상의 형성 과정과 의미에 대한 기존 연구는 미진한 편이었다. 이에 논자는 「불조전심서천종파지요」와 󰡔자기산보문󰡕을 바탕으로 삼화상의 개념 내지 그에 대한 조사예참문이 성립되었을 가능성을 말하였다. 또한 󰡔설선의󰡕 발문 중 ‘「조사예참」에 보조와 지공, 나옹, 무학이 포함된 예’와 ‘이런 예는 대노사(大老師) 때를 따라야 한다’는 청허의 제자 중관해안의 언급과, 관매설매가 보조 및 삼화상을 포함한 󰡔선문조사예참작법󰡕을 간행한 예 등을 통해 청허대의 규범이 제자들에 전승되었음을 말하였다. 또한 󰡔천지명양수륙재의범음산보집󰡕의 경우 보조와 지공, 나옹, 무학 등이 「선문조사예참」에 존재했으나, 해동 제1조 태고보우마저 「선문조사예참」에 편입되지 못하고 하위 항목인 「선설제산단」에 신입(新入)된 예는 청허의 유훈이 크게 작용한 때문이라는 점을 말하였다. 이런 바탕 속에 증명삼화상이란 개념이 정립 확산되어 오늘에 이르며, 증명삼화상은 보조의 목우가풍을 이어 ‘근원을 달리하는 물줄기’가 된 부휴 문도들에 의해 추앙된 채 임제종을 넘어 통합의 조계종을 추구하는 정신과 맞물려 존재하고 있음을 말하였다.

Jigong 指空, Naong 懶翁, and Muhak 無學 were called the Three Masters (Sam hwasang 三和尙) since the early Joseon period. Revered as Three Saints (samseong 三聖), they became the object of worship at Samseonggak 三聖閣, or the Shrine of the Three Saints. After the 18th century, they came to be revered as the Three Verification Masters (Jeungmyeong sam hwasang 證明三和尙). In the Seogmun uibeom 釋門儀範 compiled in the early modern times, the three masters were praised as the Verification Teachers of the Dharma (Jeungmyeong beopsa 證明法師). The Verification Teachers of the Dharma is a term used for the object of the highest worship, and the term was used for figures as sacred as the actual body of the Buddhas. Despite such importance of the three masters, the origin and the development of the concept of Three Verification Masters have not been much studied. This paper newly suggests that the concept of the Three Masters and the Worship of the Patriarchs (Josa yecham 祖師禮懺) were established based on the two writings, the Buljo jeonsim seocheon jongpa jiyo 佛祖傳心西天宗派旨要 and the Jagisan bomun 仔虁刪補文. Also, this paper found that the worship of the three masters was festablished during the time of the monk Cheongheo 淸虛 and then handed down to his disciples, as evidenced by writings of his disciples. For example, Bojo 普照, Jigong 指空, Naong 懶翁, and Muhak 無學 were included in the “Worship of the Patriarchs” (祖師禮懺) section in the Seolseon ui 說禪儀 written by Haean 海眼, a disciple of Cheongheo. In it, Haean wrote that the patriarch worship should follow the examples from the great old monks’ era. Cheongheo’s disciple Seolmae 雪梅, also included Bojo and the Three Masters in his writing entitled, Seonmun josa yecham jakbeob 禪門祖師禮懺作法, which explains rituals for worshiping patriarchs of the Seon school. As for the Cheonji myeongyang suryukjaeui beomeum sanbojib 天地冥陽水陸齋儀梵音刪補集, the masters Bojo, Jigong, Naong, and Muhak were included in its “Worship of the Patriarchs” (祖師禮懺) section, while even Taego Bou 太古普愚, the first patriarch of Haedong, was excluded in “Worship of the Patriarchs”. This paper suggests that it was due the influence of the teachings left by Cheongheo. With this historical background, the concept of the Three Verification Masters was established and widlely spread. They were revered by the disciples of Buhyu 浮休 who continued the customs and traditions from Bojo, and thereby revered in the Imje School. At the same time, the veneration for the Three Verification Masters goes beyond the boundary of the Imje School, and they also have an important religious existence until today in the Jogye School which pursues harmony and integration.

Ⅰ. 서언

Ⅱ. 조사예참문과 삼화상

Ⅲ. 삼화상찬과 나옹 법맥

Ⅳ. 증명삼화상 개념의 성립과 전개

Ⅴ. 결어

로딩중