The main aim of this article is to achieve the observationally adequate grammar of the vocative marker –a/ya in Korean. By comparing other nominal particles such as structural Case markers, postpositions, and delimiters, the article addresses the question of what syntactic category the marker in question belongs to. The empirical finding is that the vocative marker behaves morpho-syntactically differently from the three categories of nominal particles. As a consequence, it is hard to confirm that of the three, it falls under any single syntactic category. This peculiarity of the marker leads to offer a syntactic analysis in which –a/ya heads its own projection, Vocative Phrase, and the Voc head bears the [2p] feature, which is responsible for anthropomorphism or personification of the inanimate or nonhuman addressee. In addition, the characteristics the marker at stake exhibits can be explained straightforwardly if it is assumed that vocative phrases appear above the left periphery, i.e., beyond the propositional CP domain in which the argument structure of predicates is represented or saturated syntactically. Namely, they occur in the so-called Speech Act Phrase domain that syntactically encodes discourse-pragmatics information such as discourse participants.
2. 경험적 관찰
3. 이론적 제안 및 결론