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KCI등재 학술저널

캅카스 지역의 민족-언어상황 고찰

남오세티야와 북오세티야의 언어정책을 중심으로

After the dissolution of Soviet Union in 1991, the 14 former states of Soviet Union established a number of titular˗oriented language policies in order to strive for their ethno-nationalistic identities. For example, 3 Baltic states with their firmly defined ethnic identities conducted relatively more solid nation˗building processes than the other former Soviet states. However, the rest of former Soviet countries including the Central Asia and Caucasus have been threatened by ethnic disputes, and especially Georgia, which has a long history of its people and language, encounters severe ethnic conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia due to Georgia˗centered nation˗building policies. Although the official status of Russian language was successfully deprived of the implementation of Georgian national development programs after its independence, this caused the resistance of South Ossetian people and they eventually declared their independence. As a result, a reunification with the Republic of north Ossetia-Alania in the Russian Federation can be expected. However, the language policies and situations in South Ossetia and North Ossetia in Russian Federation are different from each other. North Ossetia within the Russian Federation remains as an autonomous republic that could declare both Ossetian and Russian as their official languages, but the use of Russian language is much more dominant than that of Ossetian. In contrast, South Ossetia which was an autonomous oblast’ in Georgia and currently is an independent country, is found to be active for conserving and expanding the use of their titular language. Therefore, it has been a challenge for the two Ossetian governments to create a single Ossetian language with narrowing the differences between the two dialects: Iron and Digor. This will be the first step for them to protect their titular language from the influences of Russian and Georgian governments and their languages.

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