Purpose: 18-year occupation of the United States and NATO in Afghanistan has ended. The ideal goal of removing terrorism desired by the international community and forming a democratic and liberal state through the formation of a government has been broken by the Taliban s ruling. There are several factors that do not form a state in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to consider these factors. Method: For the purpose of research, it is important to look at the historical context and social structure of Afghanistan and to look at the results of the Western anti-terrorism war . First, we examine the tribe-centered decision-making system(Jirgah) and the ideological role of Islam. And we examine whether the formation of a national state has been stagnant through wars since the late 19th century and the civil war in Afghanistan. Results: The role of the extreme Sunni Islamic group played a role in the rapid growth of the Taliban. Mujahideen was formed during the war against Britain and the Soviet Union, of which the Taliban of the Pashtun people living in southeastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan grew their power during the civil war in Afghanistan, and the Taliban was given a representative position in the war against the United States. In addition, the Taliban succeeded to some extent in integrating a divided ethnic society by force. Conclusion: After the United States-Taliban ‘Doha Agreement’ (Peace Agreement), where the Afghanistan government was excluded, the Taliban occupied most of Afghanistan in a short period of one month. Although the Taliban group does not have a unified leadership system, it will become the ruling power of Afghanistan in the future. The Taliban s Wahhabism or Salafism will serve as the norm of social integration in Afghanistan.
2. Afghanistan s Social Characteristics :Tribe-centered Society and Islam
3. The Emergence of the Taliban and Islamic Fundamentalism
4. The response of the United States: Strategy to stabilize Afghanistan, Counter-terrorism and the Formation of a Nation State
5. Conclusion: Doha Agreement and Outlook