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KCI등재 학술저널

동북아시아 두형토기의 출현과 발전

중국 동북지방을 중심으로

이 논문은 중국 동북지방을 중심으로 한 동북아시아 두형토기의출현과 발전, 확산 및 소멸 과정을 종합적으로 분석하고 있다. 굽접시라고도 불리우는 두형토기는 기원전 6천년기에 남중국에서 최초로출현한 것으로 추정된다. 음식을 담아 봉헌, 진설하거나 배식하는 그릇인 두형토기는 남중국 신석기시대 사회의 주요 토기 기종으로 발전하였으며 특히 무덤의 부장품으로서 주로 발견된다. 남중국의 두형토기는 북중국으로 확산되어 황허 하류 유역의 허우리 문화에서가장 먼저 확인된다. 신석기시대 중기가 되면 남중국과 북중국 대부분의 사회에서 두형토기를 제작 사용하게 된다. 중국 동북지방에서는 요동반도의 샤오주산 3기 문화와 랴오닝 서부/네이멍구 동남부지방의 훙산 문화에서 기원전 4천년기의 거의 같은 시기에 두형토기가 각각 출현한다. 이러한 두형토기는 음식의 봉헌, 진설 등 종교 및매장 의례 활동과 밀접한 관련을 가진 것으로 생각되며 청동기시대가 되면 중국 동북지방의 주요 지역에서 대부분 제작 사용된다. 특히샤자뎬 상층문화에서는 인간 희생의 의례와 관련된 재구덩이에서 두형토기가 다수 발견되어 주목된다. 또한 부여 사회에서도 두형토기가 주요 기종으로 발전하여 문헌기록과 일치함은 흥미롭다. 청동기시대가 끝나고 목기, 칠기의 두가 발전하면서 중국 동북지방의 대부분 지역에서 더 이상 두형토기를 사용하지 않게 되었지만, 퇀제 크로우노브카 문화에서는 오히려 두형토기가 주요 기종이 된 것은 특이하다.

This paper aims to discuss the introduction of the pedestal vessels to northeast China and their change and development in this region. Pedestal vessels, sometimes called dou, were used to offer, display, and distribute food and seem to have appeared for the first time in southern China during the early period of the Neolithic culture, probably around the 6th millennium B.C.E. The pedestal pottery quickly became popular in the societies of the middle and late phase of the Neolithic Age culture in this area and spread to those in the middle reaches of the Yangzi River as well. Among the Neolithic societies in north China, those in lower reaches of Yellow River began to use pedestal vessels for the first time. It is quite possible that the first pedestal bowels in the Houli culture of Shandong was influenced by the pedestal pottery culture from the south in the lower Yangzi river valley. The pedestal pottery not only continued to be used in the societies of the middle and late phase of the Neolithic culture in Shandong but also spread to those in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. Thus, the pedestal vessels were used throughout north and south China by the middle phase of the Neolithic period. In northeast China, the pedestal vessels are found for the first time in two different areas. In the Xiaozhushan Ⅲculture of the 4th millennium B.C.E. in the southern tip of Liaodong peninsula pedestal vessels appeared along with ding and gui tripods and they are very similar to those of the contemporary Dawenkou culture in Shandong peninsula. This new change in pottery was made possible under the direct influence of the Dawenkou culture. These vessels continued to be used in the late phase of the Neolithic period in Liaodong peninsula. Another area in which pedestal vessels were used for the first time in northeast China is western Liaoning and southeastern Inner Mongolia. At the Dongshanzui religious site in Kazuo, western Liaoning, many pedestal vessels were found together with terracotta statues of pregnant woman, circular and rectangular altars, and stone building structures. It is clear that these vessels were used as ritual paraphernalia during religious activities. Pedestal vessels became more widespread in some of the Bronze Age societies in northeast China. In western Liaoning and southeastern Inner Mongolia, Pedestal bowels or dishes are found in the Lower Xiajiadian culture as well as the subsequent Weiyingzi, Upper Xiajiadian, and Shi'ertaiyingzi culture. In particular, pedestal dishes are found in relatively large numbers together with human sacrifices in ash pits of the Xiaoheishigou site of the Upper Xiajiadian culture in southeastern Inner Mongolia. It is clear that these pedestal dishes were closely related to this particular type of ritual activities, as they are hardly included as part of mortuary goods in the graves of this culture. The only exception is a bronze pot connected with six surrounding pedestal bowls that was discovered in Tomb No.8501 in Xiaoheishigou, Inner Mongolia. In the lower reaches of Liao River as well as in Liaodong peninsula, pedestal vessels were used in most Bronze Age societies in different frequencies. Again, in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C.E. the Yueshi pottery culture of Shandong peninsula made a strong effect on the Shuangtuozi II culture of Liaodong peninsula, and as a result, the pedestal vessels are similar to each other in style. In the Xituanshan culture of central Jilin, pedestal vessels were used in limited numbers and so were in eastern Jilin of the Tuman River valley in the second half of the Bronze Age culture. In contrast to the tripod vessels, the pedestal vessels never made their appearance in the present-day Heilongjiang during the Bronze Age. It is interesting, however, that in the Tuanjie- Krounovka culture of eastern Heilongjiang, eastern Jilin, northeast Korea and southern Maritime area of Russia, pedestal vessels became very popular,

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 두형토기의 출현

Ⅲ. 두형토기의 발전과 확산

Ⅳ. 두형토기의 소멸

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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