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한일민족문제연구 제42집.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

아시아태평양전쟁 말기 일본의 군수동원법제 정비와 조선인 동원의 강화

군수지정회사 노무동원 연구의 시론

本稿は、太平洋戦争末期に日本帝国の軍需動員関連法制が整備された 過程や軍需指定会社の動員事例を検討して、軍需会社法が朝鮮人動員に 及ぼした影響の考察を試みるものである。 日本帝国の戦争動員体制に関する構想は第一次世界大戦時に列強の戦 時動員体制をまねて制定した「軍需会社動員法」(1918)に起原する。その法制 は日中戦争の勃発で制定された「国家総動員法」(1938)によって実行された。し かし1941年12月以降、欧米諸国に対する太平洋戦争を挑発してからは徐々に 戦況悪化に陥ったため、1943年には軍需会社法制定や軍需省新設などを通し て航空機や船舶など重要軍需品の生産増強を図る形で戦争動員システムを建 て直そうとした。しかしそれによって、日本本土での動員対象者の性別と年齢が 拡大されたし、植民地でも「徴用」を通して「国民動員」を強制する契機となっ た。一方、朝鮮総督府は朝鮮側の「特殊な状況」を盾に臨時的に「軍需生産 責任制」(1944.4)を試行して日本政府による「内外地行政の一元化」に対応しよ うとしたが、政府と企業および軍部の圧力によって1944年10月には朝鮮にも「軍 需会社法」を適用した。軍需会社法は軍需増強のために企業や労働者を国家 の命令によって徴用した法制だが、そのかわり軍需企業は原料や金融はもちろ ん、労働力供給にいたるまで莫大なメリトを享受した。 軍需会社法が公布されてから、軍需会社はその傘下の労働者とともに一括 して「徴用とみなされる」ようになって、以前に「募集」、「官斡旋」などの形態で動 員された朝鮮人もすべて「応徴士」と見なされたので、日本の軍需指定会社によ る朝鮮からの労務動員はいっそう円滑となった。それは、本稿で検討した日本 の製鉄会社、造船会社、機械製作会社などの軍需会社における朝鮮人動員 の事例からも確認できる。したがって、日本政府はもちろん、朝鮮人戦時動員 の主体であった該当の軍需企業もそれにたいする戦後責任から逃れない。

This paper studied on the legislation process for national mobilization of the company and laborers, especially focused on Munitions Companies Act(Gunjukaishaho), and its legal operations both in japan and Korea, which led to intensive mobilization of colonial Koreans. The results of studies are as follows. 1. Legislative process - The concept of national mobilization originated from the Munitions Industry Mobilization Law in 1918, which was made after the model of German wartime mobilization system, and was actualized by legislation of National Mobilization Law in 1938 just after the Sino-Japanese War, finally reinforced by the legislation of the Munitions Companies Act in October of 1943, which was made for the reverse the tide in the Pacific war by producing munitions including air fighters in a high speed, which led to more intensive mobilization of women and adolescents as well as japanese men. 2. Logistics mobilization in colonial Korea - The Japanese Government General in korea initiated a logistic mobilization policy in October of 1944, which was similar to Munitions Companies Act in Japan, which was the result of the enormous pressure from the japanese government, munitions corporate group(Zaibatsu), and military powers. This was the very crucial trigger to intensify the nation-wide forced mobilization(Choyo) 3. Influence on korean mobilization - After the introduction of Munitions Companies Act in korea, koreans mobilized into munitions company in north area of korean peninsula and japanese islands increased in a high speed, which brought about under population in south korea. Nevertheless, The Japanese Government General in korea mobilized more koreans including women and adolescents in the name of Jyosei Kinro Teishintai or Kinrohokokutai to fill up the labor shortage in japan. The mobilized koreans were put mainly into japanese munitions companies, which were granted a number of favors for their pains and cooperations. That is the reason why the japanese munitions companies as well as japanese government won’t be free from the responsibility and compensation for mobilized koreans.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 전황 악화로 인한 국가총동원 체제의 균열

Ⅲ. 군수동원 법제의 강화와 조선인 동원의 확대

Ⅳ. 일본 군수지정회사에 의한 조선인 강제동원의 사례

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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