Purpose: This study evaluated the prognosis of patients with traumatic unilateral superior oblique palsy (SOP) and clinical factors associated with spontaneous resolution. Methods: Medical records of patients with traumatic unilateral SOP who visited two hospitals (Yeungnam University Hospital and Daegu Catholic University Medical Center) between January 2015 and June 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. When traumatic unilateral SOP did not recover within at least 1 year of follow-up, no spontaneous resolution was considered. Both traumatic and ocular factors were evaluated to evaluate their association with spontaneous recovery. Results: Fifty-nine patients (mean age, 52.6 years; 48 male patients) were enrolled in this study. The mean interval from trauma to initial presentation was 3.9 months. The mean vertical deviation at initial presentation was 6.34 ± 5.22 prism diopters (PD) (range, 0–25 PD). During the mean 24.1-month follow-up period, 28 patients (47.5%) achieved spontaneous resolution of SOP. Thirteen patients underwent surgical treatment for SOP. Vertical deviation <6 PD at the initial visit and low fundus torsion in the nonparetic eye and both eyes were significantly associated with spontaneous recovery (p < 0.05, logistic regression analysis). Traumatic factors, including the trauma type, presence of intracranial lesion, loss of consciousness, and Glasgow Coma Scale score, were not associated with spontaneous recovery. Conclusions: In this multicenter study, spontaneously recovery was achieved in 47.5% patients with traumatic unilateral SOP. Even mild head trauma can lead to permanent SOP. Ocular factors, including the angle of deviation and fundus torsion, may better predict spontaneous resolution than traumatic factors in patients with traumatic unilateral SOP.
Materials and Methods