Identification of Factors to Predict Adults’ Self-esteem in Japan: Focusing on Generativity
- Shoko Hayashi
- Journal of Public Value
- Vol. 3
- 51 - 61 (11 pages)
Purpose: The current study identifies factors that contribute to or predict older adults’ high self-esteem with the effect of generativity being focused. The aims of this study are; 1) to investigate whether the sense of generativity goes up as adults get older, 2) to identify the variables associated with generativity and analyze the differences between younger and midlife adults, as well as men and women, and 3) to determine the factors that predict self-esteem. Method: Participants were recruited by snow-ball sampling. The questionnaires comprised; 1) profiles, 2) Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale, 3) present anxiety (PA) and future anxiety (FA), and 4) one question on generative concern, “For the next generation, I try not to do harmful things but do good things for the environment.” Responses were analyzed with HAD. Student’s t-test, correlation analysis, multiple comparison procedure, ANOVA, MANOVA, hierarchical multiple regression, and multiple regression analysis were conducted. Results: Older adults had the higher generativity in accordance with self-esteem, with the peak age of 55-59. Men showed a sharp rise, and women showed a mild rise with high generativity in early age. Self-esteem showed a correlation with generativity except for younger adults. Education showed the strongest correlation with generativity only in women, followed by self-esteem and age. Childrearing and future worries showed no correlation. Self-esteem was predicted by present anxiety most in all groups, and it was the only factor that predicted women’s self-esteem. For midlife adults, childrearing and generativity predicted their self-esteem. The effect of generativity on younger men’s self-esteem was the greatest. Conclusion: Generativity goes up with self-esteem and can be a positive factor to predict self-esteem with its peak in the late 50s. Present anxiety has the biggest negative effect on self-esteem in all groups. Childrearing has nothing to do with generativity, but it is a factor in predicting midlife adults’ self-esteem, especially for midlife men. Developing a sense of generativity might help raise self-esteem for young male adults. Female adults tend to be much more negatively affected by anxiety than men, and education may have some effect on their self-esteem as education may relate to other factors to reduce present anxiety such as higher income.