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KCI등재 학술저널

숙신·산융·동호는 (고)조선의 이칭(異稱)

현재 중국의 만주 전역과 내몽골, 하북성 일대에서는 비파형 동검 같은 고조선의 유물이 다수 출토되고 있다. 그러나 중국은 고조선이라는 용어를 사용하지않기 위해 대신 산융(山戎), 또는 동호(東胡)라는 용어 등을 사용한다. 이를 고조선의 유물로 인정하면 동북 3성과 내몽골, 하북성 일대까지 고조선의 강역이 되기 때문에 나온 고육책이다. 숙신·산융·동호에 대한 중국의 논리는 대략 숙신은 만주족(여진족)의 선조이며, 산융과 동호는 선비족의 전신이라는 것이다. 중국은 동북공정 등의 각종 공정을 통해 이들을 자국사의 범주에 넣어 분류하고 있다. 반면 한국 고대사학계는 숙신·산융·동호 등을 외국사로 보아 한국사의 범주에서 제외하고 있다. 식민사학의 계통을 그대로 잇고 있는 한국 고대사학계는 숙신·산융·동호를 고조선·부여·예맥 등 우리 민족과는 다른 별 개의 민족이라고 인식하고 있다. 반면 일제강점기 때 민족사학자와 해방 후 북한의 리지린같은 연구자들과 국내의 일부 연구자들은 숙신이나 동호를 고조선과 같은 실체로 보기도 했다. 실제로 『사기』, 『산해경』, 『일주서(逸周書)』 등 비롯한 중국의 고대 문헌들을 살펴보면 숙신·산융·동호는 고조선과 같은 세력이었음을 알 수 있다. 필자는『사기』를 비롯한 중국의 고대 문헌과 일부 선행 논거를 토대로 숙신 및 산융·동호가 고조선과 같은 실체였음을 밝혀서 한국고대사 연구의 인식과 지평을 대폭넓히고자 한다.

Usually, Suksin, Sanyung and Dongho are recognized as the different nations compared with Old Chosun. However, in the old Chinese history books we can find out evidences which tell us these nations were the same as Chosun. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the oneness of these nations, so as to broaden the horizon of studies on the history of Old Chosun. 1. Suksin Suksin was recorded as the former nation of Uproo and known as located in North Manchuria in ‘History of Three Countries’ by Chin Su. So the scholars of East Asian countris regarded Suksin as a nation of ancient Manchurian. But Suksin was not located in Manchria and rather existed in the Sandung area, according to the records of such as ‘History’ by Su Matien and ‘History of Han’ by Ban Go. ‘Record on Sama Sangyo’ of ‘History’ shows that Suksin was located in Sandung Province on the North-East of Che. Therefore, Fu Sunien told that the old Suksin was the same as Chosun and was different from the later Uproo in Manchuria. The location of Chosun was also the same as Suksin. According to ‘Record on Mountains and Countries’, Chosun was in between China's East Sea and Bohai Sea. These areas include Sandung and Hubei Provinces and show that Chosun’s location was the same as Suksin. 2. Sanyung During the Chunchiu Period of China, Sanyung was located on the North of Che. This Sanyung is recognized as a different nation from Chosun. Sanyung and the Chinese countries of Yen and Che had wars. At the early Chunchiu Period(B.C. 707) Sanyung hit Yen and Che. 44 years later(B.C.663) Sanyung hit again Yen. At this time Che saved Yen and counter-attacked Sanyung and forwarded to Kojuk and Yungji. As seen above, Sanyung was on the North(through East) of Yen and Che. This is the same location with Chosun and Suksin as shown above. Therefore, Sanyung and Chosun were also the sama nations, 3. Dongho From the Janquo Period(B.C.403~B.C.221) the name of Sanyung disappeared, and instead Dongho existed on the North and East of Yen. This shows the previous Sanyung and later Dongho were the same nations. So it means Dongho is also an another name of Chosun. The most important proof that Dongho and Chsun were the one nation is seen in the ‘Record on Hyungno’ of ‘History’, and in the ‘Record on the Eastern Nations’ of ‘History of Three Countries’. According to the former book, Yen's general Chin Ge attacked Dongho and got the Liao area. On the other hand the later book tells that Chin Ge attacked Chosun and got the same area of Liaodung. This means that Dongho and Chosun were the same country, that is, Dongho was also an another name of calling Chosun.

1. 머리말

2. 숙신에 대한 고찰

3. 산융에 대한 여러 문제

4. 동호에 대한 새로운 접근

5. 맺음말

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