본 연구의 중심인물인 ‘종리권(鍾離權)’은 중국 내단도교 道脈의 첫머리에 등장하는 핵심 首班인물이다. 그는 宋元內丹學의 선구일 뿐 아니라, 중국도교에 지대한 영향을 미친 鍾呂金丹道의 창시자로, 조선의 海東丹學派와도 밀접한 관계를 이루고 있다. 중국 종리권의 조선반도에서의 직접적인 영향력은 崔致遠(통일신라)→李茗(고려말 隱士)→金時習(세종17-성종24)→정렴(鄭磏, 중종1-명종4)→韓無畏(중종12-광해군2)로 전해지는 海東丹學派라는 도맥에서 영향관계가 드러난다. 內丹家 종리권은 중국 내단도교의 대표적 이론서인 《鍾呂傳道集》과 수련서인 《靈寶畢法》의 저자일 뿐 아니라, 주술적 外丹을 배척하며 內丹만이 正道임을 주장하는 노래 <破迷正道歌>와 <還丹歌>를 남겼다. 이렇듯 조선뿐 아니라 宋明理學에도 지대한 영향을 미친 內丹界의 탁월한 실천적 수련가인 종리권이지만, 제자 여동빈이 중국의 민간에서 강력한 유명세를 달리면서 지금까지도 두 인물의 성을 따서 ‘鍾呂’라는 ‘대표적인 師弟관계’로만 회자되며, 여동빈에 비해 상대적으로 주목을 받지 못한 소외인물에 속한다. 이를 위해 본고는 도교 이론저술가로서 종리권의 內丹詩 <破迷正道歌>, 內丹書 《鍾呂傳道集》, 문학작품에 나타난 형상적 특징, 明代揷圖의 판본별 상이성 등 중국문헌 및 벽화, 삽화, 회화 예술작품에 대한 검토와 함께 중국과 조선에서 발견되는 수많은 <鍾離權圖>의 정형성 분석을 위한 선행연구에 해당된다. 그리고 北宋代에 이미 정형화된 종리권의 도상적 특징인 ‘雙髻’, ‘芭蕉扇(Shan)’과 ‘복부(大肚)’가 갖는 도교내단학적 상징의미에 대한 기존의 분석을 활용하여, 한국학에 散見되는 종리권 해석에 새로운 이해를 도모하고자 한다.
Yuan’s great work <鍾離權度呂岩圖>, the intense religiosity expressed in the mural paintings of Eternal Pleasure Palace(永樂宮), Woodblock prints and illustration of Zhongli Quan(鍾離權) during the Ming dynasty, and <the Immortals Zhongli Quan and Lü Tung-pin paintings(鍾呂合圖)> by 張路 and 孟永光, etc. The stereotype of Zhongli Quan(鍾離權), is condensed into five symbolicities: ‘雙髻’, ‘芭蕉扇’, beak and beak eyes, ‘bare feet’, and ‘abdominal protrusion’ that exposes the breast. The formality of Zhongli Quan(鍾離權), is first confirmed in the ≪宣和畵譜≫, publication about the theory of official paintings(官方畫論) during the Northern宋 宣和 (1119-1125) period, earlier than the Yuan dynasty. In the late Tang and the five reigns dynasty’s internal taoist 鍾離權, his figure was already standardized in the Northern Song Dynasty, not the Yuan Dynasty. His iconography achieved the highest religious and artistic achievements in the Eternal Pleasure Palace(永樂宮) murals in the Yuan Dynasty, and through the Ming and Qing Dynasty, secularized and stereotyped with the development of printmaking and illustration(揷圖), which took the method of ‘pictorial description(圖說)’, was transmitted to the neighboring Joseon Peninsula. In addition, the ‘running across a great teacher(遭遇明师)’, which was repeatedly emphasized in 鍾離權’s internal alchemy poem <a song that enlightens the truth(破迷正道歌)>, has a profound influence on character relationships and plot formation in literary works such as miscellaneous plays of the Yuan Dynasty and novels of the Ming Dynasty. It was analyzed that the terminology of the outer and inner alchemy that appeared in the book of internal alchemy ≪鍾呂傳道集≫ played a role in raising the level of symbolic aesthetics in the literary arts by borrowing them directly from literature or turning them into characters. The figurative features and symbolic meanings of him, which emphasized the importance of ‘(worshiping your teacher)拜師’ in internal alchemy training, are as follows when interpreted in the meaning of Taoist internal alchemy. First, a typical Chinese child’s head(雙髻), means ‘returning to a very perfect state’ in the Taoist internal alchemy. Second, it maens ‘doing good and accumulating merit’ in the process of inner-dan(丹) training, by using the same syllable of ‘芭蕉扇(Shan)’ and 勸‘善(Shan)’, which means to encourage low-class people to live kindly. For this reason, it can be seen that the ‘Palm leaf fan(芭蕉扇)’ has become a frequent symbol of not only Zhongli Quan(鍾離權), but also of the masters in Taoism and Buddhism. Third, the half naked figure and abdominal obesity, with his exposing chest and stomach, is similar to a Buddhist monk who smiles brightly, 布袋和尙 image. The abdominal obesity symbolizes ‘great mercy and great embrace’ that can take care of everything in the universe. The three characteristic shapes of 鍾離權 are the 雙髻 head to return to simplicity, 芭蕉扇 to encourage good work, and ‘大肚’ to symbolize great tolerance, all in the pure state of the Tao. In order to return to ‘pure perfectness’, the image of 鍾離權 is actively embodying that ‘勸善’ and ‘tolerance’ are the most important elements in Taoist inner-dan training. Contrary to the image of Lü Tung-pin(呂洞賓), who is a handsome classical scholar, the image of shabby 張飛 in Zhongli Quan(鍾離權) is in stark contrast to each other, which has the effect of emphasizing the traditional mentor disciple relation of 鍾呂. In this way, I will promise to conduct a more in-depth follow-up study on what kind of gods are transformed into a new god in the new culture of the Korean peninsula from the great master Zhongli Quan(鍾離權) of ‘great mercy’ and ‘great embrace’ in China. What this study did not rev
2. 內丹家鍾離權 관련 기록 및 작품
3. 중국 <종리권도>의 ‘정형성’과 시대적 관계
4. 結語: ‘大포용’의 明師 종리권