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日本語文學 第98輯.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

한국과 아이누의 저승설화 비교문학적 고찰

In this article, I reveal parallelisms and differences in the tales of the other world between Korea and Ainu, and I also provide a new interpretation of socio-cultural aspects of the memory keepers’ recognition of lore represented in the tales of the other world. In both countries, the structure of the tales of the other world consists of ‘transfer to the other world’, ‘experiences in the other world’, and ‘return to the present world’. A difference, however, is that in the case of Korean narratives, people go to the other world after death, whilst in the case of Ainu narratives, people go to the other world without being dead. In the recognition of space in the other world, Korean tales do not clearly distinguish between the other world (which is located considerably far from the present world) and the hell, or they represent the horizontal notion suggesting that the hell is located near the other world. On the other hand, Ainu tales represent the vertical notion suggesting that the hell is located below the other world. In both countries, the tales symbolise the manner of life in the other world, viewing it as similar to, or superior to, the manner of life in the present world. In Ainu tales, however, there do not exist the Great King of Emma, who judges the guilt of the dead and Death, a messenger of the Great King of Emma. Any lessens that might be taken from the judgements of guilt are not described in the tales of the other world, and this seems to be because Ainu people were not affected by the kanji-related civilisation such as Confucianism and Buddhism. The tales of the other world in Ainu lacks ethical lessons, and they only describe the primordial desires such as peace in afterlife and the extension of life.

本稿では韓国の冥界説話と日本のアイヌの冥界説話を取り上げ、その共 通点と相違点を比較し、さらに冥界説話に表われている伝承者の伝承意識を社会文化の側面から解釈してみた。その結果、冥界説話の構成においては「あの世への移行」、「あの世の体験」、「この世への帰還」という共通の構成を見せながら、死者であの世に行くか、生きながらあの世に行くかによって韓国の蘇生談とアイヌの探訪談に分類し得ると考察された。冥界の空間意識においては韓国の場合あの世が地上の彼方にあり地獄とははっきり区別できず、又はあの世のそばに地獄があるという水平的観念に表われ、アイヌの場合はあの世の下界に地獄が存在するという垂直的観念に表われた。一般的な冥界社会の生活様式においては両民族ともに人間界の生活と同様であるか、またはよりよいものとして形象化されていた。しかし、アイヌの冥界説話には死者の罪を判決する閻魔大王やその使者である死神は存在しない。そのような罪の判決による教訓的姿勢が冥界説話に示されていないのは、儒教や仏教のような漢字文明の影響を受けず、文字のない自然そのままの生活を営んでいたことに起因すると言えよう。アイヌの冥界説話には倫理の教訓的姿勢がなく、死後の安住を願い、また延命しようとする原初的欲求の意識だけが表われていた。

1. 서론

2. 기존 연구 동향과 자료 제시

3. 저승설화의 분석

4. 저승설화에 나타난 전승집단의 의식 비교

5. 결론

참고문헌

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