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KCI등재 학술저널

도덕(과)교육과 비판적 사고

관점주의적 도덕교육

이 논문의 목적은 도덕철학과 도덕교육의 문제를 니체의 관점주의를 통해 비판하고 대안을 모색하는 것이다. 근대의 합리주의는 이성의 힘을 절대시한다. 근대 도덕철학 역시 ‘선 그 자체’ 또는 ‘절대적이고 보편적인’ 도덕 원리위에 성립한다. 따라서 보편주의에 입각한 도덕교육은 학습자로 하여금 ‘형이상학적인’ 도덕을 진리로 간주하고 그것의 당위성을 합리적으로 인정하고 수용하여 인격체로서의 삶을 영위하게 하는 것을 목표로 한다. 탈현대주의는 보편주의적 도덕철학과 도덕교육에 반론을 제기한다. 탈현대주의는 근대의 도덕 보편주의가 도덕의 구속적ㆍ당위적 측면을 지나치게 강조한 나머지 개인의 ‘구성적ㆍ관점적ㆍ맥락적’ 도덕 재구성 능력을 간과했다고 비판한다. 학습이란 삶의 현장에서 스스로의 경험을 통해 무엇인가를 습득하게 되는 과정이라고 볼 때 도덕규범이나 원리 또한 근본적으로 ‘나’의 관점에서 재구성되고 끊임없이 창조되어야 할 성질의 것이다.

The purpose of this study is to understand Nietzsche’s perspective of moral philosophy and to search its implication for Moral Education, in which the crisis of the postmodernism dominates. Nietzsche’s perspective of moral philosophy is based on the argumentation ‘my’ moral decision or choice would be individual but also general at the same time. Through the discussion in which the perspectives of others are partially accepted, my (subjective) perspective becomes my (objective) perspective that is more mature and more general. Perspective morality can be applied to students who are 12 or 13 years old. Therefore,this study will explore how the perspective of Nietzsche’s moral philosophy is embodied and used in the process of teaching and learning activities. The characteristics of modern society is described as pluralism. Postmodernism is cynically argued because it’s often confused with (subjective)relativism or egoism. Therefore we might be missing generalism of morality that emphasizes the absoluteness and generality of morality. Do we have to return to modern moral philosophy to overcome the postmodern? No. The problems that postmodern creates can be solved by correcting and altering the negative aspects of postmodern. Here plays the critical thinking a critical role. There is a strong belief about the power of reason in modern rationalism. Therefore it has been hypothesizing the existence of ‘good itself’ or ‘absolute and general’ morality. The moral education that is based on generalism aimed that metaphysical morality, is regarded as the truth and has rationally recognised its righteousness. But this aspect is strongly denied according to the perspective of moral theory because that perspective, context, and constructive moral reconstruction is not allowed within it. According to the perspective of moral education, learning is rather a process in which students experience in their lives and they create their own morality through never-ending renewal of their perspectives.

1. 들어가며

2. 도덕교육과 비판적 사고

3. 니체의 도덕철학

4. 관점주의적 도덕의 실제

5. 나오며

참고문헌

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