It has been reported that overconsumption of caffeine during pregnancy leads to a deleterious effect within the nervous tissues during embryonic development. In this study, we further extrapolated the effect of caffeine in the developing retinas, which is known to be one of the most sensitive tissues in chick embryos. Morphological changes of retinal thickness and organization of neuroretinal epithelium were monitored using three gene markers, Atoh7, FoxN4, and Lim1. Upon treating with a single dose of caffeine (15 µmol at embryonic day 1 [E1]), relative thicknesses of developing retinas (particularly of E7 and E9) were significantly altered. Among the three genes studied, the expression pattern of Atoh7 was notably altered while those of FoxN4, and Lim1 mRNA showed only a slight change in these developing retinas. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results supported the most notable changes of Atoh7 but not FoxN4, and Lim1 gene in the developing retinas, particularly at E7. The effect of caffeine towards other organs during development should be extrapolated and the awareness of its intensive consumption should be raised.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest