Comparative histological study on the effect of tramadol abuse on the testis of juvenile and adult male albino mice
As a synthetic analog of codeine, tramadol is often prescribed to treat mild to moderate pains. This study was designed to estimate and compare the histological effect of tramadol on testes of both juvenile and adult male albino mice. A total number of 40 healthy male albino mice were classified into two main groups as follows: group I (juvenile group, includes 20 mice aged three weeks) subdivided equally into group Ia (control group received isotonic saline) and group Ib (tramadol-treated group received 40 mg/kg/d tramadol orally for 30 days); group II (adult group, includes 20 mice aged two months) subdivided equally into group IIa (control group received isotonic saline) and group IIb (tramadol-treated group). Juvenile and adult tramadol-treated groups showed numerous testicular changes, including blood vessels congestion, widening of intercellular spaces, vacuolization in interstitial tissues, luminal germ cells exfoliation, and increased expression of caspase-3 that indicated cellular apoptosis. In the ultrastructural examination, spermatogenic cells degenerated with the frequent appearance of apoptotic cells. Sertoli cells showed vacuolations, large lipid droplets, and disrupted intercellular cell junctions. These observed testicular changes were markedly observed in the juvenile group. Testicular abnormalities and apoptotic changes can be caused by tramadol administration. These abnormalities are more common in juvenile mice.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest