The Effects of Short-Term Weight Loss on Body Composition, Blood Electrolytes, and Immunoglobulin Concentrations among Ordinary Judo Athletes and Excellent Judo Athletes
Purpose: While electrolytes and immunity are highlighted as important in terms of the relationship between health and physical activity, immunoglobulin plays such a decisive role in the immune function that defends the human body, and it occurs in multiple tissues, such as the skin, lungs, blood, muscle, etc., affecting an increased risk of infection, including sleep deprivation, mental stress, malnutrition, and weight loss. Hence, this study was conducted to examine the effect of short-term weight loss on body composition and blood electrolyte and immu-noglobulin concentrations among non-excellent and excellent Judo athletes. Method: The subjects of this study were 14 male athletes who were currently active as Judo athletes at uni-versity and had over 5 years of athlete experience and weight loss experience. For the statistical processing of this study, the mean and standard deviation for each item were calculated using the SPSS 12.0 statistical program, and the Two-way repeated ANOVA was performed according to group(non-excellent athlete and excellent ath-lete) and time (before the weight loss, 6 days after the weight loss, immediately after the competition, 30 minutes recovery period), and in the case of an interaction effect, the post-test was conducted by contrast test for each period and paired t-test for each period. Results: The changes in body weight(A), total weight without fat(B), and body fat percentage(C) are demon-strated before and after the weight loss(6 days), immediately after the competition, and 30 minutes in the re-covery period(A). In terms of the change of body weight over time by group(A), both groups significantly de-creased(p<.001) at the weight loss(6 days after) compared to before the weight loss. The changes in Ca(A), Na(B), K(C) and Mg(D) before and after the weight loss(6 days after), immediately after the competition, and 30 minutes of recovery are demonstrated. Comparing the change(A) of Ca between groups by group, both groups signifi-cantly decreased during the reduction period compared to before the weight loss(p<.001). The changes in IgA (A), changes in IgG(B), changes in IgM(C) and changes in IgD(D) are demonstrated before and after the weight loss(6 days), immediately after the competition, and after 30 minutes of recovery. Comparing the change in IgA be-tween the periods by group, there was a significant increase in the excessive weight loss(after 6 days) in the excellent athlete group compared to before the weight loss(p<.001). Conclusion: Weight loss is considered to have a negative impact on performance improvement and affect the pre-match condition and performance. Based on the results of this study, the scientific weight loss methods and appropriate short- and long-term weight loss will serve as the important basic data for further research to im-prove the athletic performance among the athletes of weight class.
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