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中國學 第80輯.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

“巨X”结构中非范畴化X的语法特征考察

新兴程度副词“巨”作状语时,“巨X”结构中的X出现了非范畴化的现象,X的结构主要有“巨+AP”、“巨+VP”、“巨+N”三类,具体包括“好V”、“难V”、“有N”、“没N”、“能V”以及“巨+N”中的N。本文结合实际语料对“巨X”中非范畴化X的句法功能和语义特征进行了较为详尽的考察,找出了此类非范畴化X的语法特征如下:第一,具备性质形容词的基本句法功能和属性;第二,X内部成员之间的非范畴化程度不均衡,形容词属性的程度犟弱互不相同;第三,注意到个别连续体现象,即“N”——“巨+有N”——“巨+N”;第四,除了“巨+N2”中的N以外,X都经历了语义转移的过程,语义转移的形式主要是指称内容的转换;第五,除了“巨+N1”中的N和“巨+N2”中的N以外,X在脱离程度副词的情况下也自带程度义,“巨”搭配“X”是程度义的叠加,而非程度义的赋予;第六,除了“巨+N2”中的N以外,X在脱离程度副词的情况下也包含着主观性的语义特征,“巨”搭配“X”是主观性的叠加,而非主观性的赋予;第七,X自带的主观性主要来源于说话人对“巨X”修饰对象的评价,只有“巨+N1”中N的主观性语义来自说话人对N性质的判断。

When ’Ju(巨)’ works as a degree adverbs, the decategorization of the X appeared in the the structure of ’Ju(巨)X’ and the decategorization happends in 'Ju(巨)+AP', 'Ju(巨)+VP' and 'Ju(巨)+N'. According to statistics, we can find that there are 6 kinds of X which includes 'Hao(好)V', 'Nan(难)V', 'You(有)N', 'Mei(没)N', 'Neng(能)V'and the N in the 'Ju(巨)+N'. Therefore, based on the analysis on linguistic data of corpus, we found out the grammatical features of the X, including the syntactic functions of the X and semanic features of the X. The features of X's syntactic function includes possessing the basic functions and propety of a propety adjective, the degree of the decategorization is unbalanced inside the X and there were some continuum phenomenon appeared in the decategorization. And we also found out three features of the semantic of X. First, except the the N of the 'Ju(巨)+N2', most of the X have the sematic shift and the main way of the sematic shift is the content shift. Second, except the N of 'Ju(巨)+N1'and 'Ju(巨)+N2', X possesses the degree of meaning and subjectivity without the degree adverbs. Lastly, the subjectivity of the X comes from the speaker's evaluation while the subjectivity of the X of 'Ju(巨)+N1 comes from the speaker's judgment of the propety of the N.

1. 引言

2. “巨X”中非范畴化X的句法功能

3. “巨X”中非范畴化X的语义特征

4. 结语

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