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中國學 第80輯.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

再议汉语“何况”与韩语“하물며”的语法特点

汉语“何况”与韩语“하물며”是较典型的表递进语义的词汇表达形式,两者在语义上基本可以对应,但在具体的句法、语义、语用平面上仍存在一些差异。本文主要借助语言学“梯阶”的概念,对两者进行对比分析初步可得出如下小结:首先,在语义层面上,汉语“何况”有两个较典型语义,皆可借助梯阶概念进行解释说明,且汉语“何况2”的独立性、语法化程度逐渐增强,有逐渐超越“何况1”典型用法的倾向,对于汉韩语相关呈现不同的语法特点有较重要的影响;韩语“하물며”的词典义尽管只有一种典型语义,但在具体语料中也有类似“何况2”的补充说明语义,但现阶段并没有超越典型义的倾向。其次,在句法方面,我们主要从句法位置、句型、共现成分三方面进行对比,可以发现,在句法位置上,“何况”用于句首、句中皆较为常见,“하물며”多用于句中;句型上,“何况”用于陈述句的情况多于“하물며”,韩语“하물며”用于疑问句的情况多于何况”;共现成分上,两者的常用表达呈现镜像分布的倾向。再次,在语用方面,我们主要从信息焦点的角度进行了初步分析,认为两者不局限于提示后置对比焦点,也可以提示前置焦点,但“何况”提示前置焦点的用法已较典型,“하물며”提示前置焦点的用法尚不典型。相关特点与两者在语义方面的差异以及对句法、语用层面进行投射有较大关联。本文希望通过对汉韩语相近语言表达的对比,来寻找些许差异,以便为外语学习者提供些许参考。

Chinese ‘Hekuang’ and Korean ‘하물며’ are relatively typical lexical expressions expressing progressive semantics. These two expressions can correspond in semantics, but there are still some differences in specific syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This paper mainly draws on the concept of ‘scale’, and taking the comparative analysis of these two expressions, the following conclusions can be drawn. Firstly, at the semantic level, there are two typical meanings of Chinese ‘Hekuang’, both of them can be explained with the concept of ‘scale’, and the independence and grammaticalization of Chinese ‘Hekuang2’ have gradually increased, and there is a tendency to gradually surpass the typical usage of ‘Hekuang1’, which has a more important influence on the different grammatical characteristics of Chinese and Korean. Although the dictionary meaning of Korean ‘하물며’ has only one typical meaning, there are also supplementary meanings similar to ‘Hekuang2’ in the specific corpus, there is no tendency to go beyond the typical meaning at this stage. Secondly, in terms of syntax, we mainly compare the three aspects of the syntactic position, sentence pattern, and co-occurrence expressions. It can be found that in terms of syntactic position, ‘Hekuang’ is commonly used in the beginning and middle of sentences, and ‘하물며’ is mostly used in the sentence; in terms of sentence structure, ‘Hekuang’ is used in declarative sentences more than ‘하물며’, and Korean ‘하물며’ is used in interrogative sentences more than ‘Hekuang’; in terms of co-occurrence expressions, the common expressions of the two show a mirror-image distribution. Thirdly, in terms of pragmatics, we mainly conducted a preliminary analysis from the perspective of information focus and proposed that these two expressions are not limited to promoting the post-contrast focus, but can also prompt the pre-focus, but ‘Hekuang’ prompts the usage of the pre-focus is more typical than ‘하물며’.

1. 绪论

2. 汉语“何况”与韩语“하물며”的语义对比

3. 汉语“何况”与韩语“하물며”的句法对比

4. 汉语“何况”与韩语“하물며”的语用对比

5. 汉语“何况”与韩语“하물며”的语法对比

6. 结语

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