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圃隱學硏究 제30집.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

정몽주와 김삿갓의 고향시 비교 연구

본고에서는 오랜 사행으로 자주 고향을 떠나야 했던 정몽주와 방랑으로 일생을 보낸 김삿갓의 고향 관련 시를 비교하여 동이점을 밝히고 그 의미를 고찰하였다. 정몽주와 김삿갓의 시에서 타향살이, 고향의 모습, 고향에서의 생활, 고향 관련 요소 등을 추출하여 비교하였다. 정몽주는 사행 중에 융숭한 대접을 받았으나 행로가 멀고 험란하였기에 고향이 그립다고 하였다. 고향에는 자신이 일군 버드나무, 자식들이 기다리고 있다고 생각했기 때문이다. 또한 고향에 있을 때는 여유로운 삶을 누릴 수 있기 때문이기도 하였다. 정몽주는 해와 달, 구름과 바닷물, 기러기 소리 등 고향에서도 볼 수 있거나 고향과 연관된 요소를 볼 때 그리고 고향과 멀리 떨어져 있음을 느낄 때 주로 고향을 그리워하였다. 김삿갓은 방랑객이었기에 거처와 먹거리를 구걸하는 처지여서 쫓겨나기 일쑤였다. 부유한 양반보다는 가난한 서민이 그나마 온정을 베풀어 주어 그들의 어려운 처지를 체험할 수 있었다. 그렇기에 고향을 그리워했지만 사실은 고향이더라도 쓸쓸하고 어려울 거라고 생각했다. 정작 고향에 갔을 때도 지난 세월에 대한 회한으로 슬픔에 빠질 뿐이었다. 김삿갓도 정몽주처럼 멀리 떨어져 있는 상황을 고향을 그리워하는 요소로 삼았지만 꿈을 통해 고향을 자주 그렸다. 정몽주에게 고향은 살고 싶지만 살 수 없었던 곳이다. 고향에서 멀어지는 것이 국가를 위하는 길이요, 자신의 지향을 성취하는 방법이었기 때문이다. 김삿갓에게 고향은 살 수 있지만 살고 싶지 않았던 곳이다. 폐족이기에 가능한 한 멀리 떠나는 것은 어쩔 수 없는 선택이었다. 고향은 꿈에서나 가고 싶은 곳이었던 셈이다. 정몽주와 김삿갓의 고향인식과 삶의 궤적은 현저히 달랐지만 고향을 떠남으로써 새로운 시대의 가치를 세운 인물로 지금까지 인정받게 된 점에서는 동일하다고 할 수 있다.

This study set out to compare Jeong Mong-ju, who was away from his home often for his envoy missions, and Kim Sat-gat, who spent his entire life wandering around, in hometown-related poems, figuring out the same and different characteristics between them and understanding their meanings. The study specifically identified living away from home, the aspects of a hometown, life in hometown, and hometown-related elements in their respective poems for comparison. Jeong was well treated on his envoy missions, but he said he missed his home due to the long and rough routes. In his mind, the willows he took care of and his children were waiting for him in his hometown. He was also able to lead a leisurely life in his hometown. He usually missed his hometown when seeing elements that were found in his hometown or related to it such as the sun and the moon, clouds, seawater, and wild goose cries, and feeling that he was far away from his home. Kim was a vagabond begging for food and dwelling. He would always be kicked out. Poor ordinary people rather than the rich noble would pour a warm heart on him, who then experienced their difficult situations. He would miss his home, but his home would feel sad and difficult for him. When he, in fact, returned to his hometown, he was merely drowned in sadness out of his remorse for the past years that he spent by himself. Like Jeong, he also missed his home when he was far away from it and often longed for his home in his dreams. For Jeong, his hometown was a place that he wished to live in but could not. Working away from his home was for the country and for his achievements. For Kim, his hometown was a place that he could live in but would not wish to. He could not work for the country because some of his ancestors did something very wrong, which means that being as far away from his hometown as possible was an inevitable choice for him. His hometown was a place that he would wish to return to only in his dreams. Although the two were widely different in the perceptions of hometown and life trajectories, they were the same in that they were recognized for raising values for a new era by being away from their homes.

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