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圃隱學硏究 제30집.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

태종 7년 문과 중시(重試) 책문과 변계량의 대책

『포은집』에는 정몽주의 문인 혹은 문생으로 지칭되는 인물이 5명 있는데 함부림(1360~1410), 박신(1362~1444), 권우(1363~1419), 김자지(1367~1435), 변계량(1369~1430) 등이다. 이들은 모두 고려 우왕 11년(1385) 과거에 급제한 정몽주의 문생들이다. 이 글은 정몽주 문생 가운데 변계량의 대책 「存心出治之道立法定制之宜」를 분석하여 당대 현안을 살펴본 것이다. 조선 태종 7년(1407) 문과 중시는 식년시와 달리 현직 관료들을 대상으로 한 시험으로, 중시로서는 최초이다. 태종 7년(1407) 중시 책문은 조선건국이후 체제가 정비되어 가는 과정에서 드러나는 당대 현안이며, 변계량의 대책은 이에 대한 대응 방안을 제시하는 것이다. 중시 책문에서 당대 현안으로 전선(銓選), 전제(田制), 부역(賦役), 조전(漕轉), 의관(衣冠), 관혼상제(冠婚喪祭) 등 여섯 가지 사안을 구체적으로 지목하고 있다. 이에 대해 변계량은 전선(銓選)은 능력에 따라 선발하며, 전제(田制)는 정전제가 이상적이나 토지를 9등급으로 나누고 한전 혹은 균전의 법을 시행하며, 부역(賦役)은 인보제를 시행하며, 조전(漕轉)은 육로를 이용하며, 의관(衣冠) 가운데 여복(女服)은 중국의 제도를 따라도 무방하며, 관혼상제(冠婚喪祭) 역시 중국의 제도를 따를 것을 말하고 있다. 태종 7년(1407) 중시 설행이후 다음 중시가 시행되는 태종 16년(1416) 이전까지 관혼상제의 혼례, 여복 등을 제외한 나머지 조목들은 변계량의 대응방안으로 시행되고 있었다는 점에서 의미가 있다.

This study is investigated the current issues and countermeasures of the time by analyzing the Promotion Examination of Officials in 7th year of King Taejong’ reign and Byeon Gye-Ryang’s Answer Sheet. The study is summarized as follows. First, it was about the seven-year political situation of King Taejong and the Promotion Examination of Officials. We looked at the circumstances of the first period of the 7th year of King Taejong’s reign and the current issues of the time presented in the Promotion Examination of Officials. In April of King Taejong’s 7th year, 15years after the foundation of Chosun, the first the Official Promotion Examination was held. The seventh year of King Taejong’s reign was a time when Chosun’s founding contributors were practically influential and political forces were in the process of changing within King Taejong’s political power. Based on this political situation, for the first time in seven years of King Taejong’s reign, the Official Promotion Examination was held for incumbent officials. Therefore, the current issues presented in the book of the examination were reflected in King Taejong’s intentions. In particular, the basis of the first question on the recruitment of human resources in the Civil Service Examination was the process of publicizing the intention to accept new political forces into public opinion. Second, it was the analysis of the political status and the Answer Sheets of Byeon Gye-ryang. Byeon Gye-ryang, a disciple of Jeong Mong-ju, praised the tombstone of Muhak, the tombstone of Min-je, the epitaph of Munmyo, the tombstone of King Jeongjong, and the epitaph of King Taejong. This illustrated his political status as well as his academic level at the time. In the 7th year of King Taejong’s reign, Byeon Gye-ryang was selected as the top student of the Promotion Examination of Officials for describing the Answer Sheet, which led to his promotion to Yejo Chamui. Byeon Gye-ryang listed details on the Answer Sheet, but emphasized that the law governing the mind, such as the 精一執中 of Gyeonghak and the 建中建極, starts with Gyeong(敬). Third, it was a policy that reflected Byeon’s Answer sheet after 7th years of King Taejong. From the beginning of the Promotion Examination of Officials in the 7th year of King Taejong’s reign until the 16th year, when the next Promotion Examination of Officials was implemented, we looked at whether the items listed by Byeon in the Answer sheet were reflected in reality. Byeon’s Answer sheet on talent recruitment, which was the first question of the Civil Service Examination, should be strictly selected throughout the past, prevented from illegally entering the country, and eliminated the recruitment of talent in consideration of the number of years. It was a system that had long been adopted in consideration of the number of government officials, not the ability of talent. This meant the deep-rooted evils of left-handed life, which existed since the Goryeo Dynasty. In the end, the 13th year of King Taejong’s reign was revolutionized by the appeal of the Ministry of Constitution. In addition, Byeon suggested that the system be established from various perspectives, including the land system, the transportation of tributes by land and sea, the official marriage system, and clothing issues in the Answer Sheets.

1. 머리말

2. 태종 7년 문과 중시의 설행 배경과 책문 내용

3. 변계량의 정치활동과 대책 「存心出治之道立法定制之宜」 내용

4. 대책 「存心出治之道立法定制之宜」를 통해 본 대응방안과 의미

5. 맺음말

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