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普照思想 第64輯.jpg
KCI등재 학술저널

벽암 각성의 행적과 사상

본 논문은 조선 중기 시대에 살다간 벽암 각성(1574~1659)의 생애와 사상을 주제로 한다. 각성이 살다간 시대는 임진왜란과 병자호란 등으로 국가가 위기에 처한 상황이었고, 억불숭유가 지속되어 승려들의 신분이 보장받지 못한 시대였다. 불교적으로는 청허 휴정의 제자인 사명 유정이 호법승으로 활동했고, 편양 언기에 의해 선사상과 법맥이 정립되었다. 그러나 청허계 못지않게 부휴계 또한 사회적으로나 불교적으로 입지가 매우 컸는데, 바로 부휴의 직제자인 벽암 각성(1574~1659)에 의해서다. 각성은 불교와 역사에 큰 족적을 남겼다. 각성의 불교사적 행적은 매우 광범위하다. 각성은 14세에 스승 부휴를 만났고, 26세에 전강을 받았다. 부휴가 송광사와 인연이 되면서 송광사는 부휴계 사찰로 인식되기 시작되었고, 이후 호남ㆍ경상도 지역 일대에 각성의 문파들이 활동하였다. 각성은 『석문상의초(釋門喪儀抄)』를 저술해 당시 승가 의례를 체계화하였고, 승가 교육 체계를 정비하였다. 각성의 선사상은 「참상선지(參商禪旨)」와 「선원도중결의(禪源圖中決疑)」를 통해 알 수 있는데, 선사상 특징은 선주교종(禪主敎從)ㆍ통교귀선(通敎歸禪)적인 측면이다. 각성의 행적 가운데 큰 업적은 전란으로 인해 피폐된 사찰의 불사를 주도적으로 하여 불교사와 미술사[문화]에 큰 업적을 남겼다. 한편 각성은 대사회 활동을 하였는데, 각성은 임진왜란 때 스승 대신 전쟁에 참여하였고, 조정의 부탁으로 남한산성을 축성하였다. 또 병자호란 때는 항마군을 조직해 의승군 활동을 하였으며, 무주 적상산성을 관리하였다. 각성의 다양한 호국 활동의 이면에는 호법(護法)에 대한 염원이 깃들어 있다고 본다.

This thesis has the life and the thought of Byeokam Gakseong, who had lived and died during the middle period of the Joseon Dynasty, as the topics. Regarding the times during which Gakseong had lived and died, it had been a situation in which the nation had faced a crisis because of the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, the Manchu War of 1636, etc. And, Buddhistically, because the eokbulseungyu had continued, it had been a time when the statuses of the Buddhist monks could not receive a guarantee. At around the time when Gakseong had been doing an activity, Samyeong Yujeong, who was a disciple of Seosan Hyujeong, had been doing an activity. And, regarding the Zen thought and the Buddhist doctrine, they had been established by Pyeonyang Eongi. However, not any less than cheongheogye, the position of buhyugye, also, had been big socially and Buddhistically. Indeed, it had been because of Byeokam Gakseong, who was an immediate disciple of Buhyu Seonsu. The thought and the activity of Gakseong can be seen from the position of the history of Buddhism and socially. The Buddhist historical whereabouts of Gakseong are very extensive. Regarding Byeokam Gakseong, he met the teacher Buhyu when he was 14 years old. And he received a jeongang when he was 26 years old. While Buhyu had tied up a relationship with the Songgwangsa Temple, the Songgwangsa Temple began to be recognized as a buhyugye Buddhist temple. And, afterwards, in the whole area of the Honam region, the division of a religious sect of Gakseong had done the activities. Regarding Gakseong, by writing ‘Seokmunsangeuicho’, he had systematized the Buddhist priesthood formality at the time. And he had maintained the Buddhist priesthood education system. The Zen thought of Gakseong can be known through ‘Chamsangseonji’ and ‘Seonwondojunggyeol’‘. The special features of the Zen thought of the Zen master are the aspects of seonjugyosong and tonggyogwiseon. From the whereabouts of Gakseong, regarding a big achievement, he left a big achievement in the history of Buddhism and the history by taking the initiative regarding a Buddhist temple that had been impoverished due to a war. Gakseong left a big achievement socially, too. During the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592, he had participated in the war instead of the teacher. And, because of the request by the royal court, the Namhansanseong Fortress had been built. During the Manchu War of 1636, by organizing the group of a horsemen’s army, he had done the activity of the euiseunggun. And he had managed the Muju Jeoksanseong Fortress. It is considered that, on the other side of the diverse patriotic activities of Gakseong, there had been a wish regarding the defense of the religion.

Ⅰ. 서론

Ⅱ. 시대ㆍ사상적인 배경

Ⅲ. 벽암 각성의 행적

Ⅳ. 벽암 각성의 사상

Ⅴ. 결론

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