This study aimed to investigate the general mandibular symphysis (MS) shape variation among Class III skeletal base, using geometric morphometric analysis. Pre-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs of 254 patients aged 11–40 years old, with Class III skeletal base (ANB <1o) and lower incisor angle (<99o) were included. Nine-landmarks with x and y coordinates were identified on MS using TPSDig2 software, then exported into Morpho J for shape and statistical analysis. Principal component analysis showed that three main shape dimensions with a total variance of 74.6% represented the majority variation of samples. Procrustes Anova showed the shape of MS in Class III skeletal base to be mainly influenced by gonial angle, incisor inclination and sex (P<0.0001). Canonical variate analysis showed that high gonial angle groups had significantly narrower and elongated MS whereas low gonial angle groups had wider, bulbous and rounded MS (P<0.0001). The ratio of alveolar part to basal part was 1:5 in low gonial angle and 2:3 in high gonial angle. Males had significantly taller MS with narrower B point area compared to females (P<0.0001). Retroclined incisors exhibited taller and retroclined alveolar parts (P<0.0001). The shape of MS in Class III skeletal base varied at the alveolar part, basal part or both and it is influenced by gonial angle, incisor inclination and sex. Hence, understanding the shape variation of MS is important to aid orthodontic treatment planning.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest