Objectives This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of manual therapy in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Methods We searched eight electronic databases from October 2022 and only selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting outcomes for manual therapy in FBSS patients. Included studies were analyzed qualitatively. Results A total of twelve RCTs were included and three studies were meta-analyzed. Manual therapy combined with exercise demonstrated more favorable outcomes in terms of pain reduction compared to exercise therapy only (P<0.01). Some studies reported that manual therapy resulted in low efficacy, while some studies reported that specific manual techniques have a significant effect in pain relief. We, therefore, conclude that several studies have a high risk of bias. Conclusions Findings suggest that manual therapy is a safe and non-invasive, promising option for managing FBSS. However, manual therapy is not the best option in all circumstances; thus, this should be selectively applied by a well-trained practitioner. Further studies such as well-designed, risk-controlled RCTs are required to gain stronger evidence.
2. 대상 및 방법