본 논문은 몽골의 체제전환을 민주화와 시장경제체의 도입에 관한 과정과 특성, 그리고 그 결과에 관한 연구이다. 1990년대 초 몽골의 체제전환은 구소련과 동구권의 붕괴로 인한 국제질서의 변화과정에서 몽골의 체제유지를 위한 탈사회주이라는 외부적 환경과 70년 동안 지속되어온 몽골인민혁명당이 일당독재체로부터의 탈피를 위한 개혁이라는 내부적 요인에서 설명될 수 있다. 민주주의와 시장경제의 도입이라는 체제변혁을 시작한 이래 몽골은 짧은 기간 동안 여섯 번의 총선과 다섯 번의 대선을 치르면서 평화적인 정권교체를 경험했다. 몽골의 이러한 선거에 의한 정권교체와 집권은 대의민주주의와 제도화라는 민주주의의 착근에 있어서 신헌법 제정, 시장경제로의 이행, 평화적이고 합법적인 과정을 통한 정권교체, 선거를 통한 대의제의 도입과 같은 체제전환이라는 측면에서 가장 성공한 국가들 중 하나의 모델로 꼽힌다.
This study concerns the characteristics and process of Mongolia's transition of the system from a communist to a liberal and capitalist political system since early 1992. Following toppling down of the Soviet Union and debacle of East European communist countries, most of former socialist countries experienced the radical transformation. Political systems have been changed from centrally planned economy to a capitalist market economy in a short period of time of system transition. Unlike its communist colleagues, Mongolia maintained a relative peaceful and steady transition process in the early post-Communist period. There were neither political chaos nor turmoil which might have caused the demise of its political system. Since its adoption of more democratic measures and policies such as amendment of Constitution, legalizing free and universal election and civil participation in politics, decentralization of macro control of government, and reintegration of its national economy into a more independent complementary international economic system of market and competition, Mongolia has been recognized as a successful model of system transition among its communist neighbors in Central and Inner Asia. In this sense, Mongolia's experiences and path to changes and reform of its system is surely as perceived as exceptional. This paper examine the trajectory of efforts and obstacles created and overcome during the system transition of Mongolia since it took a path to democratization and liberal market economy since early 1990's. The paper will also deals with the causes and consequences of Mongolia's relative success. In addition, it will investigate and elaborate the prerequisites of political liberalization and democratization by examining the existing arguments and theories to test whether there exist a cause-effect relationship between Mongolia's democratization and the internal or external elements. The experience of post-communist Mongolia is not an exception in respect of numerous socio-political and economic problems to be solved. Mongolia, like its predecessors such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and some other countries in Inner Asia, has been facing challenges the immatured and short experience in a political system which was new to it.
Ⅱ. 몽골의 민주화와 개혁의 특징
Ⅲ. 몽골의 민주화의 추진과 체제개혁