Nigella sativa commonly known as Black seed, Black cumin or Kalonji (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used for its miraculous healing power. Use of N. sativa seeds and oil has splendid historical past in diverse traditional systems of medicine and food. In Tibb-e-Nabwi (Prophetic Medicine), it is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. Phytochemically; it contains fixed oil, protein, alkaloids saponin and essential oil. Therapeutic properties of this plant are due to the presence of thymoquinone which is one of major active component and has different beneficial properties. In Unani System of Medicine the diseases are treated with nontoxic herbal drugs. As per Unani classical literature N. sativa perform various pharmacological actions like carminative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, expectorant etc. Ample of phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical researches has been executed on N. sativa., which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties, etc. This review is an effort to summarize the literature on scientific researches of pharmacognostical characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacological activities of the kalonji seeds.