Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is a rich source of edible oil most commonly it is used as a food product mainly in bakeries and also use as a common source of oil in daily kitchen needs. Due to the presence of some special phytochemicals like proteins, fibers, oil, minerals and antioxidants it is highly used for medicinal and therapeutic purposes. It is a good source of energy and act as an antiaging agent. Its seeds are used as Anti-helmintic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and Hepatoprotective but its seed coat which is a byproduct of sesame and a cherished source of fibers is normally use for animal feedstuff. In Unani system of medicine it is used both as drug & diet (dawa wa ghida). In classical Unani literature it is indicated in various disorders like Asthma, Dry Cough, Gastritis (due to any drug, excessive use of alcohol), Dryness of Intestine, Dryness in throat, Renal Stone, Bleeding Piles, Amenorrhea, Retention of urine, Dysuria, Orchitis, Sexual Debility, Anorexia. The present review article, an attempt have been made to compile all the pharmacological and Pharmacognostical characters of Sesamum indicum with special reference to Unani literature.