Minerals are individual of the components of foods and are not produced in the body but essential for best possible health. Several essential metals are vital for the appropriate performance of various enzymes, transcriptional factors and proteins that are essential in various biochemical paths. Metals like zinc (Zn), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) are cofactors of hundreds of enzymes. Zn is involved in the synthesis and secretion of insulin from the pancreatic β-cells. Chromium (Cr) increases the insulin receptors activity on target tissues, mainly in muscle cells. Insulin hormone is required to maintain the blood glucose amount in normal range. Continual increase of blood serum glucose level leads to marked chronic hyperglycemia or diabetes mellitus. Deficiency of insulin or its resistance, blood glucose level exceeds the upper limit of the common range of 126 mg/dl. Poor glucose control and diabetes changes the levels of essential trace elements such as Zn, Mg, Mn, Cr, iron etc. by rising urinary excretion and their related decrease in the blood. The aim of this article to discusses the important roles of essential trace elements in particular perspective of type 2 diabetes.