Depression is an important medical problem in today’s world. Despite its high prevalence, treatment of depression remains problematic, as its cause is still not fully understood. Of the ways recommended to tackle this problem is implementing the potentials of various medical schools. A medical school which has played an important role in the history of medicine in the world is Persian medicine. This study was intended to identify non-pharmacological interventions for depression in the most reliable references on Persian medicine, classify these interventions and compare them with the latest medical findings. The study was set to review the most reliable references on Persian medicine. In addition, relevant keywords were used to search the PubMed and Scopus databases. In Persian medicine sources, melancholia is categorized into three main types. One type is regarded as cerebral melancholia, which resembles modern psychiatry's depression closely. Therefore, some key points put forth by Persian medicine scholars regarding melancholia can be used to answer questions concerning depressive disorders and their etiology and treatment. Although recent studies have confirmed most approaches offered by Persian medicine physicians in ancient Persia, it is imperative to design and conduct clinical trial studies according to these approaches.