Bambusa arundinacea family Graminae, is one of the precious plant resources of the earth. It has played a significant role in human civilization since ancient times. It is tall sized tree growing throughout India, moist parts of India. It also occurs in Sri Lanka, Malaya, Peru and Myanmar. The different parts of this plant contain silica, cholin, betain, cynogenetic glycosides, albuminoids, oxalic acid, reducing sugar, resins, waxes, benzoic acid, arginine, cysteine, histidine, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, protein, gluteline, contains lysine, methionine, betain, cholin, proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, urease. Various parts of this plant such as leaf, root, shoot and seed possess anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anthelmintic, antifertility, antibacterial, insectisidal, antiarthritic, vessele protection etc. This review mainly focuses on the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological information of Bambusa arundinacea.